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GSR 2015 - Heating and Cooling

93 04 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT for energy storage development.66 By contrast, Pakistan levied import duties and taxes on the import of solar batteries.67 At the sub-national level in the United States, several states have been actively promoting new grid and storage infrastructure projects. California contracted 264 MW of storage capacity in 2014 through competitive bidding to meet the state’s energy storage mandate that was set the previous year.68 Also in 2014, Hawaii mandated several provisions to enhance the state’s grid network, requiring grid operators to improve the solar PV interconnection process and to invest in demand-response programmes, among other things.69 Massachusetts ordered utilities to modernise the state grid over the next decade and pledged USD 18 million to support a slate of projects—including battery storage and microgrids—intended to develop a more resilient energy infrastructure.70 New Jersey awarded USD 3 million to 13 energy storage projects.71 ■■ HEATING AND COOLING Historically, national policymakers have afforded little attention to renewable heating and cooling technologies, despite their potential to play an important role in national energy systems. However, this situation is beginning to change. Renewable heating technologies have received more policy attention than renewable cooling technologies. Of the heating technologies, solar thermal—primarily solar water heaters—is the main focus of public policy. Policies also have focused mostly on residential and commercial buildings, rather than on the industrial sector, although, in recent years, attention has turned towards industrial heat in some countries. For example, Austria, Denmark, Germany, India, Mexico, Thailand, and Tunisia all have incentive schemes that support utility-scale and/ or industrial renewable heat.72 Public finance mechanisms have received the most attention from policymakers in the sector. As with the electricity sector, policymakers promote renewable heating and cooling through a mix of targets, rate-setting and incentives policies, regulatory mandates, and public finance mechanisms.73 (p See Sidebar 7.) Although renewable heating and cooling targets continue to be limited primarily to Europe, an estimated 45 countries worldwide had targets in place by early 2015. (R See Reference Table R14.) No new targets were added in 2014. At the sub-national level, the German state of Baden-Württemberg revised its heat target, increasing its renewable heat mandate for residential buildings (in force since 2010) from 10% to 15%.74 Traditionally, targets have established specific shares of total heating and cooling demand to be supplied by renewable technologies, or have focused on the installation of specified capacity or new renewable heating systems. In Europe, the majority of targets in EU and Energy Community Member States have been introduced through each country’s National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP). Mandates to promote renewable heating and cooling, often included in building codes, have advanced slowly at the national level relative to the municipal level. (p See Cities subsection.) Policymakers generally have adopted two varying forms of mandates: solar obligations, which have been enacted in 11 countries at the national or state/provincial level, and technology-neutral renewable heat obligations, which were in place in 10 countries by early 2015. (p See Figure 33.) South Africa was the only country to institute a new mandate during 2014. The mandate (first enacted in 2011 but not in effect until September 2014) requires that a minimum of 50% of all hot water in new and retrofitted buildings come from renewable sources, including solar, geothermal, and biomass heating, as well as heat recovery systems.75 Most of the national-level policies are in Europe, where renewable heat mandates have been enacted to ensure compliance with the building efficiency requirements introduced through the EU’s Energy Performance of Buildings Directive. Many renewable heating and cooling mandates focus on solar water heating, such as those in Greece, Jordan, Kenya, and Uruguay. However, with the exception of Greece, mandates across most of Europe—such as those in France, Germany, and Ireland—are generally technology-neutral, offering support to a wide range of renewable heat technologies. Existing mandates remained largely unchanged in 2014. A few governments have begun to integrate renewable heat requirements into existing renewable power mandates placed on electric utilities. In 2014, Massachusetts became the fifth jurisdiction in the United States—after the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Hampshire, and North Carolina—to mandate renewable heat to qualify for credits under the state’s existing RPS.76 A limited number of performance-based policy mechanisms have been adapted for use in the heat sector. In 2014, the United Kingdom launched its domestic Renewable Heating Incentive (dRHI)—a long-term incentive programme that provides production-based payments—to complement the existing non-domestic RHI scheme. The new dRHI pays rates for heat generated by solar water heaters, biomass boilers and stoves, and ground- and air-source heat pumps for use by single domestic properties.77 Also in 2014, tariffs under the UK’s existing RHI scheme were increased.78 Financial incentives continued to be the most widely enacted form of policy support for renewable heating and cooling systems during 2014.79 These mechanisms generally help to reduce Solar Obligation Technology-Neutral Obligation 2011 2012 2013 Early 2015 Number of countries Figure 33. Number of Countries with Energy Heating & Cooling Policies, by Type, 2011– Early-2015 25 20 15 10 5 0 Figure 33. Number of Countries with Renewable Energy Heating and Cooling Obligations, by Type, 2011–Early 2015 Source: REN21 Policy Database Countries are considered to have policies when at least one national or state/provincial-level policy is in place. 201120122013 Early 2015

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