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GSR 2015

ENDNOTES 01 GLOBAL OVERVIEW 184 solar-district-heating.eu/SDH.aspx, viewed 6 March 2014; and based on data from Jan-Olof Dalenbäck, Solar Energy Association of Sweden and Chalmers University of Technology, personal communications with REN21, March–May 2015; Database for Applications of Solar Heat Integration in Industrial Processes (SHIP), http://ship-plants.info/reports/areas/years, viewed 25 February 2015. For geothermal (for example, France, Germany, Hungary, and Italy), see Geothermal Power and Heat text in Market and Industry Trends section. 90 See relevant texts in Market and Industry Trends section. 91 IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 9. 92 Data are for the period 2007–2013; 2014 data are not yet available. IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 9. 93 Brazil and Mexico from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 9, and Mauthner, op. cit. note 9; other countries in the region from Alejandro Diego Rosell, “Colombia: New Law Promises Tax Incentives,” Solar Thermal World, 17 July 2014, http:// solarthermalworld.org/content/colombia-new-law-promises- tax-incentives; Alejandro Diego Rosell, “El Salvador: Small Market with Growth Potential,” Solar Thermal World, 4 June 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/el-salvador-small- market-growth-potential; Alejandro Diego Rosell, “Guatemala: Growth Without Subsidies,” Solar Thermal World, 26 June 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/guatemala-growth- without-subsidies. Mexico also from UNEP, Solar Water Heating TECHSCOPE Market Readiness Assessment 2014 (Brussels: January 2014), http://www.solarthermalworld.org/content/ solar-water-heating-techscop-market-readiness-report-2014. 94 Meghan Sapp, PANGEA, personal communication with REN21, 10 March 2015. 95 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 9; Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 89, p. 32; Emanuela Menichetti, Observatoire Méditerranéen de l’Energie (OME), personal communication with REN21, April 2015. 96 Menichetti, op. cit. note 95. 97 Figure of 85% of Israeli households from OME, Solar Thermal in the Mediterranean Region: Market Assessment Report (Nanterre, France: September 2012), p. 37, http://www. b2match.eu/system/stworkshop2013/files/ Market_Assessment_Report_II.pdf?1357834276. 98 IEA, op. cit. note 78. 99 UNEP, District Energy Cities: Unlocking the Potential of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Nairobi: February 2015), p. 23, http://www.unep.org/energy/portals/50177/DES_District_ Energy_Report_full_02_d.pdf. 100 Ibid., p. 23. 101 IEA, Energy Technology Perspectives 2015 (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2015), p. 112. 102 Other heat sources from Jan-Olof Dalenbäck and Sven Werner, CIT Energy Management AB, Market for Solar District Heating, supported by Intelligent Energy Europe (Gothenburg, Sweden: revised July 2012), http://solarthermalworld.org/sites/gstec/files/ story/2013-05-21/sw_solar_markets.pdf. See also Diarmaid Williams, “Solar-district Heating Plant Opens in Denmark,” Cogeneration and On‑Site Power Production Magazine, 6 February 2015, http://www.cospp.com/articles/2015/02/solar-district- heating-plant-opens-in-denmark.html; Eva Augsten, “Denmark: Combined CSP and Flat Plate Collector System Supplies Solar District Heating,” Solar Thermal World, 30 January 2015, http:// solarthermalworld.org/content/denmark-combined-csp-and- flat-plate-collector-system-supplies-solar-district-heating; “The First Solar District Heating Plant in France is in Operation,” and “International Workshop on Solar District Heating in Italy,” SDH Newsletter, December 2014, http://www.solar-district-heating.eu/ NewsEvents/Newsletters/No13December2014.aspx. Plants with seasonal storage from, for example, Bärbel Epp, “Denmark: 37 MW Field with 203,000 m3 Storage Underway,” Solar Thermal World, 30 August 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/denmark- 37-mw-field-203000-m3-storage-underway; Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 89, p. 36; Eva Augsten, “Denmark: 23 MWth Cover 55% of Heat Demand of 1,500 Households,” Solar Thermal World, 28 July 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/denmark-23- mwth-cover-55-heat-demand-1500-households; “South Korean R&D Project Focuses on the First Solar District Heating System with Seasonal Heat Storage,” SDH Newsletter, December 2014, http://www.solar-district-heating.eu/NewsEvents/Newsletters/ No13December2014.aspx. 103 Installed collector area for solar thermal district heating in Denmark was 550,000 m2 before the end of 2014, from Krzysztof Laskowski, Euroheat & Power, personal communication with REN21, 13 March 2015; it was nearly 504,000 m2 as of September 2014, up from 223,890 m2 in March 2012, based on data from PlanEnergi, cited by Leo Holm, “Concept and Introduction to District Heating Planning,” Engineer Sunmark Solution, presentation for SDH International Workshop IT 2014, 25 November 2014, Milan, Italy, Session 1, slides 37–43. 104 Balancing variable renewables from Rachana Raizada, “Renewables and District Heating: Eastern Europe Keeps in Warm,” Renewable Energy World, 13 September 2012, http:// www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2012/09/ renewables-and-district-heating; see also Peter Kelly-Detwiler, “Denmark: 1,000 Megawatts of Offshore Wind, And No Signs of Slowing Down,” Forbes, 26 March 2013; Anna Leidreiter, Diane Moss, and Markus Groth, From Vision to Action: A Workshop Report on 100% Renewable Energies in European Regions (Hamburg: World Future Council, Nordic Folkecenter, and Climate Service Center at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, March 2013), p. 12, http://www.worldfuturecouncil.org/fileadmin/user_upload/ Climate_and_Energy/From_Vision_to_Action_Policy_ Recommendations_for_100__RE_in_European_Regions.pdf; smaller jurisdictions such as the Faroe Islands have also used electric heat to help balance variable renewable generation, per IEA-RETD, op. cit. note 17; Eirgrid, “EirGrid Group Selects Smart Grid Demonstration Projects,” press release (Dublin and Belfast: October 2012), http://www.eirgrid.com/media/EirGrid Group Selects Smart Grid Demonstration Projects.pdf; VCharge Energy, “VCharge and SSE Deploy a Virtual Power Plant in Ireland,” 13 December 2013, http://vcharge-energy.com/blog/2013/12/13/ vcharge-and-sse-deploy-a-virtual-power-plant-in-ireland/; German-Irish Chamber of Industry and Commerce, “How TSO Smart Grid Developments Can and Are Creating Business in Ireland,” July 2014, http://www.german-irish.ie/fileadmin/ ahk_irland/New_Website_2011/Green_Tech/Smart_grid_ GR_2014/12-mccrossan-EirGrid.pdf. 105 China’s National Energy Administration issued a notice to relevant authorities in the provinces of Jilin, Hebei, Shanxi, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region to start pilot tests, from Wu Hanxuan, “Intervention Necessary to Spread Wind Power Usage,” Global Times, 7 August 2013, http://www.globaltimes.cn/ content/802300.shtml#.UiCT3yzD9aQ. 106 Burkhard Sanner et al., Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda for Renewable Heating & Cooling (Luxemburg: European Commission, European Technology Platform on Renewable Heating and Cooling (ETP-RHC), 2013), p. 30, http://www. rhc-platform.org/fileadmin/user_upload/members/Downloads/ RHC_SRA_epo_final_lowres.pdf. For hybrid systems, see, for example, Stephanie Banse, “Thailand: Government Continues Subsidy Programme in 2013,” Solar Thermal World, 15 February 2013, http://www.solarthermalworld.org/content/thailand- government-continues-subsidy-programme-2013; IEA-SHC, “Solar + Heat Pump Systems,” Solar Update, January 2013. 107 Thomas Nowak, European Heat Pump Association (EHPA), personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2014. 108 See Geothermal Power and Heat section; Nowak, op. cit. note 107. 109 Veit Bürger, Energy & Climate Division, Institute for Applied Ecology, Freiburg, Germany, personal communication, 13 March 2015; Gerhard Stryi-Hipp, Smart Energy Cities and Renewable Energies at Fraunhofer ISE, personal communication, 15 March 2015; Werner Weiss et al., “How to Boost Renewables Heating and Cooling,” conference session, REN21 Renewables Academy, Bonn, Germany, 10 November 2015, http://www.ren21.net/ REN21Activities/RenewablesAcademy/BoostingRenewables. aspx. 110 See Policy Landscape section. 111 Growth from IEA, World Energy Outlook 2014, op. cit. note 9. Average world fuel economy of light duty vehicles improved by 2% per year on average during 2005–2013, from Global Fuel Economy Initiative (GFEI), International Comparison of Light-duty Vehicle Fuel Economy (London: 2015), p. 3, http:// www.fiafoundation.org/media/45112/wp11-iea-report- update-2014.pdf. Approaches to sustainable mobility planning have been articulated in concepts such as the “avoid- shift-improve” framework from Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), per Sustainable Urban Transport Project, “How Does Sustainable Urban Transport Work?” 26 December 2013, http://www.sutp.org/en-news/ BACK

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