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GSR 2015

202 ENDNOTES 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS – SOLAR PV org/fileadmin/downloads/publikationen/Studien/PV_Cost_2050/ AgoraEnergiewende_Current_and_Future_Cost_of_PV_ Feb2015_web.pdf; systems were installed without subsidies in Italy, from “Martifer Achieves Grid Parity with Italian PV Project,” PV News, June 2014, p. 8. 97 Bids included Dubai’s tender of fully commercial, unsubsidised projects at about USD 0.05/kWh and tenders in Brazil and India in the USD 8–9 cents/kWh range. Dubai’s government-owned utility, the Dubai Electricity and Water Authority, awarded a contract for 200 MW, doubling the size of the solar power project, all from Anthony Dipaola, “Dubai Doubling Size of Power Plant to Make Cheapest Solar Energy,” Bloomberg, 15 January 2015, http://www. contract-to-build-dubai-solar-plant-acwa-ceo. Brazil also from Marcelo Teixeira, “Brazil Gives Go-Ahead to 31 Solar Parks in Push for New Energy,” Reuters, 3 November 2014, http://planetark. org/wen/72415. According to Mauricio Tolmasquim, head of the Brazilian government’s energy research company, EPE, costs were below initial price because of strong resources and the fact that many solar parks would be installed in areas with wind farms, reducing the amount that developers will need to spend on land and transmission lines, from idem. Dubai also from “Dubai’s DEWA Procures the World’s Cheapest Solar Energy Ever: Riyadh, Start Your Photocopiers,” Apricum Group, 27 November 2014, cheapest-solar-energy-ever-riyadh-start-photocopiers/. 98 Paula Mints, “The Top Ten PV Manufacturers in 2014 and Why This List Can Lack Meaning,” Renewable Energy World, 12 February 2015, article/2015/02/the-top-ten-pv-manufacturers-in-2014-and-why- this-list-can-lack-meaning; Masson, op. cit. note 2. 99 Preliminary estimates of 45.9 GW of crystalline cell and thin film production capacity and 50 GW of module assembly capacity from Mints, op. cit. note 98; estimates of 60 GW for cells and 71 GW for modules from GTM Research, PV Pulse, March 2015. See also Paula Mints, “Who’s on First, What’s and Second and Why It Does and Does Not Matter,” Renewable Energy World, 20 March 2015, whos-on-first-whats-on-second-and-why-it-does-and-does-not- matter. 100 GTM Research, op. cit. note 93. 101 Paula Mints, “Reality Check: The Changing World of PV Manufacturing,” Renewable Energy World, 5 October 2011, http:// reality-check-the-changing-world-of-pv-manufacturing; Paula Mints, “The Solar Pricing Struggle,” Renewable Energy World, 28 August 2013, article/2013/08/the-solar-pricing-struggle. 102 GTM Research, op. cit. note 93. Asia accounted for 87% of global module assembly capacity in 2014, and China plus Taiwan for 62%, from Mints, op. cit. note 99. 103 GTM Research, op. cit. note 93. Preliminary estimates were 6% in Europe and 3% in United States from Mints, op. cit. note 90. 104 Based on a preliminary data from IHS and cited in “Top 10 Module Suppliers for 2014: Same Group, Different Order,” Renewable Energy World, 3 December 2014, http://www. module-suppliers-for-2014-same-group-different-order; and from Mints, op. cit. note 98. Lists of top 10 companies vary according to source, depending on methodology; the companies listed here were mentioned by both sources referenced in this note. 105 Purchased and rebranded Chinese-made modules from Masson, op. cit. note 2. These companies are included among the top 10 module suppliers for 2014 from IHS, cited in “Top 10 Module Suppliers for 2014: Same Group, Different Order,” op. cit. note 104. 106 For example, see: Katherine Steiner Dicks, “First Solar Restores Idle Capacity in US and Asia,” PV Insider, 11 November 2014, oct-%E2%80%93-11-nov-2014; “Suntech Establishes Subsidiary to Serve South African Market,” PRNewswire (Johannesburg: 29 July 2014), establishes-subsidiary-to-serve-south-african-market-269041051. html; Solar Frontier, “Solar Frontier Signs Site Agreement for New Tohoku Plant,” press release (Tokyo: 21 January 2014), http://; “ReneSola to Expand Module Production to Japan,” PV News, April 2014, p. 4; “REC Solar ASA Plans 300 MW Expansion,” PV News, June 2014, pp. 4–5; André Joffre, “Hanwha Q CELLS monte ses capacités de production à 1,5 GW pour la fin de,” 31 August 2014, http:// ses-capacités-de-production-à-15-gw-pour-la-fin-de-lannée. html (using Google Translate); “Comtec Solar Doubling Malaysian Factory Capacity,” PV News, September 2014, p. 4; “Hanwha Q Cells to Build 800 MW Module Factory in Malaysia,” PV News, December 2014, p. 4; Doug Young, “New Energy: Trade Wars Push China Solars Offshore,” Young China Biz, 17 March 2015, http:// solars-offshore/; Bridge to India, “166 GW of Solar Investment Interest in India in the Coming Years,” India Solar Weekly, 9 February 2015; RE-Invest India 2015, op. cit. note 28; Justin Doom, “SunEdison to Build $4 Billion Solar Manufacturing Plant in India,” Renewable Energy World, 12 January 2015, http://www. to-build-4-billion-solar-manufacturing-plant-in-india; Hanwha SolarOne to Build 230 MW PV Module Factory in South Korea,” Solar Server, 3 December 2014, solar-magazine/solar-news/current/2014/kw49/hanwha-solarone- to-build-230-mw-pv-module-factory-in-south-korea.html; David Shaffer, “Solar Panel Maker to Open Minneapolis Plant,” Star Tribune, 4 November 2014, business/281539921.html; Eric Wesoff, “A Setback for SolarWorld and a Trade Case Win for Chinese Solar Manufacturers,” Greentech Media, 3 January 2015, articles/read/A-Setback-for-SolarWorld-and-a-Trade-Case-Win- for-Chinese-Solar-Manufacture; “SolarWorld Planning $1.4B Module Facility in Qatar,” PV News, April 2014, p. 4; “SunPower Announces 160-Megawatt Solar Panel Manufacturing Facility in South Africa,” PRNewswire (San Jose, CA and Cape Town, South Africa: 4 November 2014, http://newsroom.sunpower. com/2014-11-04-SunPower-Announces-160-Megawatt-Solar- Panel-Manufacturing-Facility-in-South-Africa; “JA Solar, Powerway Form JV to Build Fab in South Africa,” PV News, March 2014, p. 5; “Hevel Solar Begins Thin Film Manufacturing in Russia,” PV News, August 2014, p. 4; Linas Jegelevicius, “International Groups Partner Up for Controversial 200-MW Solar Manufacturing Facility in Russia,” Renewable Energy World, 10 February 2015, http:// international-groups-partner-up-for-controversial-200-mw-solar- manufacturing-facility-in-russia; “Hungarian Government Funds PV Module Plant,” PV News, November 2014, p. 4; “Solar Façade Company SmartFlex Opens 50 MW Factory,” PV News, November 2014, p. 4. 107 Young, op. cit. note 106. See also Liu Yuanyuan, “The Chinese Viewpoint: What Solar Manufacturers Plan to Do About the US Trade Rulings,” Renewable Energy World, 24 February 2015, http:// chinese-viewpoint-what-solar-manufacturers-plan-to-do-about- the-us-trade-rulings. 108 Daniel Gross, “Partly Sunny: America Is Making Lots of Solar Energy. What’s Holding It Back from Making Solar Panels?” Slate, 14 August 2014, the_juice/2014/08/u_s_solar_industry_lots_of_energy_not_ many_panels.html. 109 Chisaki Watanabe, “Sharp Lightens Solar Business, Shifts Focus to Energy Storage Systems,” Renewable Energy World, 4 August 2014, article/2014/08/sharp-lightens-solar-business-shifts-focus-to- energy-storage-systems; Masdar, “Masdar PV GmbH Draws Conclusions from the Market Situation of the Photovoltaic Industry in Germany,” press release (Ichterhausen, Germany: 22 May 2014), kommunikation&; “Solon Group Relocates HQ from Germany to the UAE,” PV News, April 2014, p. 5; Heba Hashem, “PV Installations in the UAE,” PV Insider, 29 April 2014, photovoltaics/pv-installations-surge-uae. 110 “Solaria Closes Factory Amid 2013 Losses,” PV News, April 2014, p. 5. 111 Examples outside of China include: “GT Advanced Technologies Inc. and Its Subsidiaries File for Bankruptcy Court Protection under Chapter 11,” Globe Newswire (Merrimack, NH: 6 October 2014),; “Martifer Solar USA Files for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy,” PV News, March 2014, pp. 6–7; Ian Clover, “Aleo Solar to Be Sold, Dissolved and Renamed,” PV Magazine, 16 April 2014, http://www. dissolved-and-renamed_100014844/#axzz2zBv7zWqR. 112 The China Banking Regulatory Commission aimed to limit lending that might lead to worsening overcapacity of manufacturing, from Judy Chen, “China Clean Energy Defaults Loom Amid Record Debt Loads,” Renewable Energy World, 5 September 2014, http:// china-clean-energy-defaults-loom-amid-record-debt-loads; Beijing allowed ailing companies to default on debt, making investors more responsible for losses when they buy risky bonds, BACK

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