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GSR 2015

188 baro225_en.pdf#page=1&zoom=auto,-247,842, and from Sven Werner, Halmstad University, personal communication with REN21, March 2015 (based on IEA Energy Balances 2012). 23 Observ’ER, op. cit. note 23. 24 Agata Prządka and Erneszt Kovacs, Biogas Report 2014 (Brussels: European Biogas Association, 2014), http://european-biogas. eu/2014/12/16/4331/. 25 Amanda Zhang Miao, Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association (CREIA), personal communication with REN21, 29 April 2015. 26 Warren Weisman, “Biogas at Home: A Renewable No-Brainer,” Renewable Energy World, 21 November 21, http://sokolicsolar. 27 Indian Ministry for New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Energy Annual Report 2014 (Delhi: 2014), annual-report/2013-2014/EN/overview.html. 28 IEA Bioenergy Task 37, Korea Country Report (Paris: October 2014), 29 Biomass Thermal Energy Council, “Biomass Thermal Market Overview” (Washington, DC: 2010), http://www.biomassthermal. org/resource/PDFs/Fact%20Sheet%202.pdf. 30 Ibid. 31 Erin Voegele, “EIA: More Wood to Be Used in Heating, Power Applications in 2015,” Biomass Magazine, 14 November 2014, wood-to-be-used-in-heating-power-applications-in-2015. 32 Bio-power capacity includes “capacity from solid, liquid, and gaseous biomass and municipal waste (renewable and non- renewable). It does not include plants that co-fire; although conversions are included in this forecast, reported capacity data from IEA statistics (2011 and earlier data points) may not include bioenergy capacity converted from fossil fuels, particularly in mixed plants,” from IEA, op. cit. note 2. 33 Estimates for bio-power generation in 2014 vary by source. The total presented here is from the IEA (op. cit. note 2), whereas the IEA’s World Economic Outlook (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2014) estimates total bio-power production to be 442 TWh. Bio-power generation according to the IEA (op. cit. note 2) includes generation “from bioenergy includes generation from solid, liquid, and gaseous biomass (including co-fired biomass) and the renewable portion of municipal waste.” 34 IEA, op. cit. note 2. Amanda Zhang Miao, op. cit. note 26; German Federal Ministry for Economics and Energy, “Development of Renewable Energy in Germany,” February 2015, http:// Erneuerbare_Energien_in_Zahlen/Zeitreihen/zeitreihen.html. 35 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Office of Energy Projects Energy Infrastructure Update (Washington, DC: November 2014, nov-infrastructure.pdf. 36 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Washington, DC: 2013), fy15osti/62580.pdf; previous GSR reports. 37 US DOE, op. cit. note 37. 38 Voegele, op. cit. note 32. The EIA definition of waste biomass includes sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases (including digester gases and methane). 39 Amanda Zhang Miao, op. cit. note 26. 40 Enerdata, “Japan’s Biomass Power Capacity Grows as Bioenergy Plays Major Role in the Global Energy Scenario,” 21 August 2014, energy-news-001/biomass-bioenergy-japan_29798.html. 41 Japan Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry, “Announcement Regarding the Present Status of Introduction of Facilities Generating Renewable Energy as of December 31, 2015,” April 2015, and from Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Renewables 2014 Japan Status Report, provided by Hironao Matsubara, ISEP, personal communication with REN21, May, 2015. 42 Information on additional installations and general trends from S.C. Bhattacharya, International Energy Initiative, personal communication with REN21, 11 April 2015; capacity information from MNRE, ”Physical Progress (Achievements),“ as of 31 December 2014, achievements/, viewed 21 January 2015. 43 Wood pellet information from Enerdata, op. cit. note 41; bagasse information from MNRE, op. cit. note 28. 44 IEA Bioenergy Task 37, op. cit. note 29. 45 IEA, op. cit. note 2. 46 UK Department of Energy and Climate Change, “Renewables Statistics,” 9 April 2015, statistics/energy-trends-section-6-renewables; Drax, “Our History,”; German Federal Ministry for Economics and Energy, “Development of Renewable Energy in Germany,” February 2015, http:// Erneuerbare_Energien_in_Zahlen/Zeitreihen/zeitreihen.html. 47 Observ’ER, op. cit. note 23. Estimate includes data from 25 European countries. 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid. 50 Prządka and Kovacs, op. cit. note 25. 51 Ibid. 52 Germany has about 7,944 biogas plants and an additional 153 with biomethane injection. German capacity from Biogas Association, “Biogas Segment Statistics 2014,” 2014, http://www.biogas. org/edcom/webfvb.nsf/id/DE_Branchenzahlen/$file/14-11-25_ Biogasindustryfigures_2014-2015_english.pdf; German generation from Observ’ER, Biogas Barometer, November 2014; other European values from Agata Prządka, European Biogas Association, personal communication with REN21, 25 March 2015. 53 ANEEL, “Banco de Informacoes de Geracao, Combustivel Biomassa,” CombustivelPorClasse.cfm?Classe=Biomassa. 54 National Energy Balance, 2014, provided by Suani Coehlo, University of São Paolo, personal communication with REN21, 5 May 2015. 55 IEA Bioenergy Task 37, Biogas Country Overview (Paris: 2014), 56 Joanna Schroeder, “Report: Brazil to Lead in Biomass Power,” Domestic Fuel, 14 November 2014, http://domesticfuel. com/2014/11/14/report-brazil-to-lead-in-biomass-power; Coehlo, op. cit. note 55. 57 Sapp, op. cit. note 14. 58 Jennifer Runyon, “Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Nigeria Piloting Waste-to-Energy Power Plant,” Renewable Energy World, 12 August 2014, news/article/2014/08/killing-two-birds-with-one-stone-nigeria- piloting-waste-to-energy-power-plant. 59 F.O. Licht, op. cit. note 10, both references. Figure 9 based on idem. 60 Ibid. 61 Ibid. 62 Ibid. 63 Ibid. 64 Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), 2015 Ethanol Industry Outlook (Washington, DC: 2015). 65 Darlene Dessureault, 2014 Biofuels Annual – Canada (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), November 2014), http://gain. Annual_Ottawa_Canada_11-24-2014.pdf. 66 Jim Lane, “Top 10 Trends in Brazil Biofuels for 2014,” Biofuels Digest, 18 April 2014, articles/2014/04/top-10-trends-in-brazil-biofuels-for-2014.html; 23.07 billion litres of fuel ethanol was consumed on the domestic market in Brazil in 2014, up from 18.68 billion litres in 2013. 67 F.O. Licht, World Ethanol and Biofuels Report, 12 March 2015. 68 F.O. Licht, op. cit. note 10. 69 Andrew Anderson-Sprecher and Jiang Junyang, Biofuels Annual - Peoples Republic of China (Washington, DC: USDA FAS, November 2014), Publications/Biofuels%20Annual_Beijing_China%20-%20 Peoples%20Republic%20of_11-4-2014.pdf. China’s national standard for vehicle usage ethanol gasoline (GB18351-2001) establishes ethanol blending ranges of 10%+0.5%, or 9.5–10.5%, ENDNOTES 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS – BIOMASS ENERGY BACK

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