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GSR 2015

218 ENDNOTES 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS – WIND POWER them, from Sawyer, op. cit. note 6. New business from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 102. 81 During 2014, decommissioned capacity included 29 MW in Denmark, 6 MW in Finland, 386 MW in Germany, 3 MW in Italy, 7 MW in Sweden, 11 MW in Japan, 2 MW in Taiwan, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 101. 82 Germany dismantled at least 544 turbines with total capacity of 364 MW from Deutsche WindGuard, op. cit. note 35; and from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 50. Germany dismantled 588 turbines with capacity totalling 386 MW from Ender, op. cit. note 32, pp. 26–37, and from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 101. At least 413 turbines (1,148 MW) were installed from Deutsche WindGuard, op. cit. note 35; and from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 50. A total of 619 turbines with capacity of 1,729 MW were installed in repowering projects, from Ender, op. cit. note 32, pp. 26–37; and from B. Neddermann, “Repowering in Germany in 2014: Last Chance to Use the Repowering Bonus,” DEWI Magazin, February 2015, http://www.dewi.de/dewi_res/fileadmin/pdf/publications/ Magazin_46/06.pdf. 83 Key markets include Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Turkey, Vietnam, and several countries in South America, from Lawson, op. cit. note 80. Markets also elsewhere, such as Italy and Ireland, from “European Wind Repowering Continues to Gather Pace,” Renewable Energy World, 11 June 2014, http:// www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/06/ european-wind-repowering-continues-to-gather-pace. 84 Figure of 7.5% based on estimated 247 TWh of generation in 2014, from EurObserv’ER, op. cit. note 1, pp. 3, 9. (This was up from 7.1% in 2013, based on 234 TWh in 2013. Note that winds in 2014 were not as favourable as those in 2013, from idem.) Wind power capacity installed by end-2014 would be enough to produce 284 TWh in a normal wind year, enough to cover 10.2% (of which 1% is offshore wind) of the EU’s electricity consumption, from EWEA, Wind in Power: 2014 European Statistics, op. cit. note 25. Wind energy penetration levels were calculated by EWEA using average capacity factors onshore and offshore, and Eurostat electricity consumption figures for 2012 (latest available data as of 21 January 2015). Note that wind power provided 10% of the European continent’s electricity in 2014, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 117; wind represented 9.3% of the UK’s total electricity supply in 2014, up from 7.8% in 2013, from idem, p. 33; and wind power accounted for about 3.5% of France’s total electricity supply, from idem, p. 34. 85 Countries meeting 10% or more of power demand with wind include Denmark, Ireland, Portugal, and Spain, from WWEA, “New Record in Worldwide Wind Installations: More than 50 GW Additional Wind Power Capacity, Wind Power Worldwide Close to 370 GW,” press release (Bonn: 5 February 2015). Denmark was up from up from 33.2% in 2013, and 18.8% in 2004, from “Denmark Sets World Record in Wind Energy,” euractiv.com, 14 January 2015, http://www.euractiv.com/sections/energy/denmark- sets-world-record-wind-energy-311083; Ireland statistic from Kenneth Matthews, Irish Wind Energy Association (IWEA), cited in IWEA, “Irish Wind Energy Investment Tops €350 Million in 2014” (Osberstown, Naas, Ireland: 8 January 2015), http://www.iwea. com/index.cfm?page=viewNews&id=131&cYear=2015&cMonth=1; Portugal from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 117; Spain (20.4%) from Red Eléctrica de España, The Spanish Electricity System Preliminary Report 2014 (Madrid: December 2014), p. 5, http:// www.ree.es/sites/default/files/downloadable/preliminary_ report_2014.pdf. In the UK, grid-connected and standalone wind turbines met 9.3% of electricity demand in 2014, up from 7.8% in 2013, according to National Grid, cited in James Murray, “UK Wind Power Smashes Annual Output Record,” BusinessGreen.com, 5 January 2015, http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/news/2388553/ uk-wind-power-smashes-annual-output-record. Wind accounted for an estimated 8.6% (preliminary) of Germany’s gross power production in 2014, from BMWi, “Renewable Energy at a Glance,” http://www.bmwi.de/EN/Topics/Energy/Renewable-Energy/ renewable-energy-at-a-glance.html, viewed 12 February 2015. 86 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern had enough wind to meet 76.3% of its electricity demand, followed by Schleswig-Holstein (70%), Brandenburg (55.7%), and Sachsen-Anhalt (55.5%); the next state was Niedersachsen (28.6%), all from Ender, op. cit. note 32, p. 34. Germany had enough capacity at year-end to supply an estimated 14.5% of electricity demand, from idem. Australia from Clean Energy Council and the Australian Energy Market Operator, http://www.aemo.com.au/Electricity/Planning/South-Australian- Advisory-Functions, provided by A. Webb, Clean Energy Council, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2015. 87 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly with Data for December 2014 (Washington, DC: February 2015), Table 1.6.A., “Net Generation by State, by Sector, Year-to-Date Through December 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours),” p. 22, and Table 1.17.B., “Net Generation from Wind by State, By Sector, Year-to-Date Through December 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours),” p. 44, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/current_year/february2015. pdf. Iowa met 28.5% of its demand with the wind in 2014 (up from 27% in 2013), and South Dakota 25.3% (down from 26%). Data from 2013 for Iowa and South Dakota from AWEA, “Wind Energy Generation Records,” http://www.awea.org/generationrecords, viewed 6 March 2014, and for 2014 from U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly, op. cit. this note. Other states in the top nine in 2014 were Kansas (21.7%), Idaho (18.3%), North Dakota (17.6%), Oklahoma (16.9%), Minnesota (15.9%), Colorado (13.6%), and Oregon (12.7%), from U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly, op. cit. this note. Wind provided 10.6% of Texas’ power in 2014, up from 9.9% in 2013, per Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), cited in “ERCOT: Texas Wind Provided Nearly 11% of Electricity for 2014,” North American Windpower, 23 January 2015, http://www.nawindpower.com/e107_plugins/content/content. php?content.13868, and up from 6.2% in 2009, from ERCOT, cited in Joshua S. Hill, “Texas Wind Energy Provided 10% in 2014,” CleanTechnica.com, 24 February 2015, http://cleantechnica. com/2015/02/24/texas-wind-energy-provided-10-2014/. For comparison, wind accounted for 4.1% of U.S. electricity generation in 2013, from AWEA, “American Wind Power Reaches Major Power Generation Milestones in 2013,” press release (Washington, DC: 5 March 2014), http://www.awea.org/MediaCenter/pressrelease. aspx?ItemNumber=6184, and for 3.5% of U.S. generation in 2012, from U.S. EIA, “Wind Industry Brings Almost 5,400 MW of Capacity Online in December 2012,” www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/ update/?scr=email, viewed 25 April 2013. 88 Wind power generated 833.7 TWh and total net generation in 2014 was 4,050.2 TWh, from Dirección de Estudios Económicos y Tarifas (Directorate of Economic Studies and Tariffs), Instituto Nacional de Energía, “Generación Neta Por Tipo De Empresa Sistema Eléctrico Nacional Año 2014 (MWh),” http://www.ine.gob. ni/DGE/estadisticas/2014/GeneracionNeta_2014_actAbr15.pdf, viewed 30 April 2015. 89 Figure of 3.1% based on estimated electricity generation in 2014 of 23,480 TWh (based on 23,127 TWh in 2013 from BP, Statistical Review of World Energy 2014 (London: 2014), and an estimated 1.52% growth in global electricity generation for 2014), on 370 GW of capacity at end-2014, and on average 22.7% capacity factor based on average capacity factors for on- and offshore from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014 (Paris: 2014), p. 24, http://www.iea.org/bookshop/480-Medium- Term_Renewable_Energy_Market_Report_2014. FTI estimates a share of 3.2%, based on capacity installed at end-2014 and 25% capacity factor, and on total global electricity generation of 22,721 TWh in 2012 (from IEA’s New Policies Scenario) and assumed compound annual average growth rate of 2.1%, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 118. WWEA puts 370 GW of installed capacity at enough to contribute close to 5% of global electricity demand, from WWEA, “New Record in Worldwide Wind Installations: More than 50 GW Additional Wind Power Capacity, Wind Power Worldwide Close to 370 GW,” press release (Bonn: 5 February 2015). 90 Losses from FTI Consulting, “Industry Shake Up as Policy Uncertainty Forces a Quarter of Businesses Out of the Wind Market,” press release (London, 12 January 2015), http://www. fticonsulting.com/global2/press-releases/united-states/industry- shake-up-as-policy-uncertainty-forces-a-quarter-of-businesses- out-of-the-wind-market.aspx, and FTI Consulting, Global Wind Supply Chain Update 2015 (London: January 2015), Executive Summary. More than 120 suppliers (including 88 from Asia), 23 from Europe, 18 from North America) have closed shop or stayed out of the wind industry over the past two years, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 15. Back into the black and order books, from Sawyer, op. cit. note 11. Note that manufacturers overly reliant on the US market, particularly GE, were not as well off with regard to orders, from idem. 91 FTI Consulting, both references, op. cit. note 90. 92 Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 10 April 2014. 93 Australia, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, New Zealand, Turkey, and South Africa from IEA, op. cit. note 80, p. 14. See also Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 89. New wind is cheaper per kWh than new coal in South Africa, per Sawyer, op. cit. note 11. In the United States, utilities are selecting wind power as the low-cost option, even as projects BACK

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