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GSR 2015

191 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT 1 Based on electricity generation of 74 TWh (265 PJ) and heat output of 73 TWh (263 PJ). Electricity generation from Ruggero Bertani, “Geothermal Power Generation in the World: 2010- 2014 Update Report,” in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2015 (Melbourne, Australia: 19–25 April 2015). Electric generating capacity from idem.; inventory of existing capacity and installed capacity in 2014 from Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), per Benjamin Matek, GEA, personal communication with REN21, March 2015; heat capacity and generation from John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd, “Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy: 2015 Worldwide Review,” in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2015 (Melbourne, Australia: 19–25 April 2015). 2 Ibid. 3 Bertani, op. cit. note 1; inventory of existing capacity and installed capacity in 2014 from GEA, op. cit. note 1. 4 Ibid., both references. Figure 12 based on idem and country- specific data and sources found throughout this section. 5 Ibid. Figure 13 from idem. 6 Bertani, op. cit. note 1. 7 Generation from Ibid., and capacity from GEA, op. cit. note 1. 8 Capacity factors based on historical values from Bertani, op. cit. note 1, and from GEA, op. cit. note 1; Philippe Dumas, European Geothermal Energy Council (EGEC), personal communication with REN21, March 2015. 9 GEA, per Benjamin Matek, GEA, personal communication with REN21, April 2015. Specifically, binary plants may show lower than average capacity factors relative to gross capacity (gross capacity factor as opposed to net capacity factor), as a binary plant’s own power use for pumping geothermal fluid reduces net output. Reported on a gross basis, binary plants will tend to have lower capacity factors than other geothermal plants that do not use as much auxiliary power. In addition, the share of binary plants of the total is growing, to perhaps as much as 12% of new capacity. 10 Ormat Technologies, “Olkaria III Geothermal Complex in Kenya Reaches 110 MW with Commercial Operation of Plant 3,” press release (Reno, NV: 4 February 2014), http://www.ormat.com/ news/latest-items/olkaria-iii-geothermal-complex-kenya- reaches-110-mw-commercial-operation-plant-3; “Olkaria III Geothermal Raises Capacity to 110 MW,” Business Daily Africa, 24 February 2014, http://www.businessdailyafrica.com/ Corporate-News/Olkaria-III-geothermal-raises-capacity-to- 110MW/-/539550/2219544/-/i88kphz/-/index.html; Bertani, op. cit. note 1. 11 Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen), “Ongoing Projects,” http://www.kengen.co.ke/index. php?page=business&subpage=current; KenGen, “KenGen Finally Connects Olkaria 280 MW to the Grid,” press release (Nairobi: 10 December 2014), http://www.kengen.co.ke/index. php?page=press&subpage=releases. 12 Bertani, op. cit. note 1 and personal communication with REN21, April 2015; Peter Omenda, Silas Simiyu, and Geoffrey Muchemi, “Geothermal Country Update for Kenya: 2014,” in Proceedings of the Fifth African Geothermal Conference (Arusha, Tanzania: 27 October–2 November 2014), http:// abstracts.theargeo.org/fullpaper/Kenya%20Country%20 Update%202014%20ARGEO-C5%20(1)%20(2).pdf; Green Energy Group, “GEG Nominated for European Geothermal Innovation Award 2015,” 26 February 2015, http://www.geg.no/ geg-nominated-for-european-geothermal-innovation-award-2015. 13 Kass Online, “KenGen Adds 140 MW to the National Grid from Olkaria Geothermal Project,” 31 July 2014, http://kassfm.co.ke/ home/index.php/component/k2/item/995-kengen-adds-140mw- to-the-national-grid-from-olkaria-geothermal-project.html; Caroline Njenga, “KenGen Embraces Geothermal Wellheads,” Kenya Broadcasting Corporation, 7 August 2014, http://www.kbc. co.ke/kengen-embraces-geothermal-wellheads. 14 Inventory of existing capacity and installed capacity in 2014 from GEA, op. cit. note 1; EGEC, EGEC Market Report 2013/2014 Update, Fourth Edition (Brussels: December 2014). 15 Padraig Oliver and Martin Stadelmann, “Public Finance and Private Exploration in Geothermal: Gümüşköy Case Study, Turkey,” Climate Policy Initiative, March 2015, http://climatepolicyinitiative. org/publication/public-finance-and-private-exploration-in- geothermal-gumuskoy-case-study-turkey. 16 Inventory of existing capacity and installed capacity in 2014 from GEA, op. cit. note 1; Suryantini, Institut Teknologi Bandung, “Indonesia Geothermal Potential; Status in 2014, and Opportunities for Medium-Low-Enthalpy Resources Development,” presentation at the Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting 2014, Portland, OR, 28 September–1 October 2014; Raras Cahyafitri, “Patuha Plant Under Trial, Sarulla to Start Drilling Operations,” Jakarta Post, 23 August 2014, http://www. thejakartapost.com/news/2014/08/23/patuha-plant-under-trial- sarulla-start-drilling-operations.html. 17 Nathan Patrash, “Geothermal: A Potential Tectonic Shift in Indonesian Energy Production,” Center for Strategic & International Studies, 21 January 2015, http://cogitasia.com/ geothermal-a-potential-tectonic-shift-in-indonesian-energy- production. 18 Husen Miftahudin, “Cari Sumber Geotermal, Pertamina Geothermal Selalu Terbentur Izin,” Metro TV News, 24 February 2015, http://ekonomi.metrotvnews.com/ read/2015/02/24/362515/cari-sumber-geotermal-pertamina- geothermal-selalu-terbentur-izin. 19 Raras Cahyafitri, “Legal Barrier to Geothermal Development Removed,” Jakarta Post, 27 August 2014, http://www. thejakartapost.com/news/2014/08/27/legal-barrier-geothermal- development-removed.html. 20 The capacity of this plant was counted towards 2013 capacity additions in GSR 2014. Maibarara Geothermal Inc., “20 MW Maibarara Geothermal Power Project Starts Commercial Operations,” 9 February 2014, http://maibarara.com. ph/news/20-mw-maibarara-geothermal-power-project- starts-commercial-operations; Maibarara Geothermal Inc., “Maibarara Geothermal Power Project Gets CDM Approval,” 15 May 2013, http://maibarara.com.ph/uncategorized/ maibarara-geothermal-power-project-gets-cdm-approval. 21 Energy Development Corporation, “EDC Boosts Visayas Grid with New 49.4-MW Geothermal Plant in Negros Oriental,” http://www. energy.com.ph/uncategorized/edc-boosts-visayas-grid-with-new- 49-4-mw-geothermal-plant-in-negros-oriental. 22 Fernando S. Peñarroyo, “Philippines – Prolonged Generation and Opportunity,” presentation at the Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting 2014, Portland, OR, 28 September–1 October 2014, http://www.geothermal.org/Annual_Meeting/PDFs/ Philippines.pdf. 23 Enel Green Power, “Enel Green Power Begins Operation of New Bagnore 4 Geothermal Power Plant,” press release (Rome: 22 December 2014), http://www.enel.com/en-GB/media/press_ releases/enel-green-power-begins-operation-of-new-bagnore-4- geothermal-power-plant/r/1663019. 24 The co-generating Sauerlach binary plant (5 MW/4 MWth) was inaugurated in January 2014, delivering heat and electricity on the outskirts of Munich, and about 4 MW of power came on line at the Oberhaching-Laufzorn plant later in the year; see Stadtwerke München, “Geothermie-Heizkraftwerk Sauerlach geht offiziell in Betrieb,” press release (Munich: 30 January 2014), http://www.swm.de/dms/swm/pressemitteilungen/2014/01/ versorgung20140130/Pressemitteilung%20vom%2030.01.2.014. pdf; “SWM Geothermie-Kraftwerk in Sauerlach eröffnet,” Muenchen.de, 31 January 2014, http://www.muenchen.de/ themen/aktuell/swm-geothermie-kraftwerk.html; Erdwärme Grünwald, “Grüner Strom aus Geothermie,” undated, http:// www.erdwaerme-gruenwald.de/Startseite/Informationen- Medien/Informationen/News-Archiv/Gruener-Strom-aus- Geothermie-E1172.htm. Two more co-generating binary plants in Bavaria, at Taufkirchen/Oberhaching (5 MW/35 MWth) and Traunreut (4 MW/12 MWth), started producing power and heat in 2014; see German Geothermal Association (Bundesverband Geothermie), list of geothermal projects in Germany, http://www. geothermie.de/fileadmin/useruploads/wissenswelt/Projekte/ Projektliste_Tiefe_Geothermie_2015_bundesland.pdf; EGEC, op. cit. note 14. 25 Inventory of existing capacity and installed capacity in 2014 from GEA, op. cit. note 1; Bertani, op. cit. note 1. 26 Kasumi Yasukawa, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan), presentation at the Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting 2014, Portland, OR, 28 September–1 October 2014, http://www.geothermal.org/ Annual_Meeting/PDFs/Japan.pdf. 27 Contact Energy, “Continued Performance Improvement,” press release (Wellington, New Zealand: 18 February 2014), http://www. contactenergy.co.nz/web/pdf/financial/cen-hy14-media-release. pdf; Robert Peltier, “Contact Energy Ltd.’s Te Mihi Power Station GEOTHERMAL POWER AND HEAT BACK

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