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GSR 2015

214 ENDNOTES 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS – WIND POWER 1 A total of 51,473 MW was added during the year, bringing cumulative global capacity to 369,597 MW, from Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), Global Wind Report 2014: Annual Market Update (Brussels: April 2015), p. 7, http://www.gwec. net/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/GWEC_Global_Wind_2014_ Report_LR.pdf; 52,251 MW added for total of 370,893 MW, from World Wind Energy Association (WWEA), World Wind Energy Report 2014 (Bonn: forthcoming 2015); 51,716 MW added for a total of 369,678 MW at year’s end, from Feng Zhao et al., Global Wind Market Update—Demand & Supply 2014 (London: FTI Consulting LLP, March 2015), p. xi; 52,129 MW added for a total of more than 371,191 MW (including capacity not grid-connected by year’s end), from EurObserv’ER, Wind Energy Barometer (Paris: February 2015), p. 3, http://www.energies-renouvelables.org/observ-er/ stat_baro/observ/barojde16_WindEnergy_EN.pdf. Figure 22 based on historical data from GWEC, op. cit. this note, and from WWEA, op. cit. this note, and data for 2014 from sources in this note. 2 Figure of 84% based on data from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, and from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 7. 3 Shruti Shukla, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 6 April 2015, and from GWEC, “Global Wind Statistics 2013” (Brussels: 5 February 2014), p. 6. Note that 52 countries saw commercial wind activity in 2014 alone, and at least 77 had more than 10 MW and 24 had more than 1 GW by the end of 2014, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. 4 GWEC, Global Wind 2006 Report (Brussels: 2006), pp. 8–9, http:// gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/gwec-2006_final_01.pdf. 5 Seventh consecutive year from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 8; shares based on idem., p. 7; Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, pp. 29–32. North America includes the United States and Canada. Note that Asia accounted for 50.2% of newly installed capacity in 2014, Europe for 25.8%, and North America for 13.9%, from EurObserv’ER, op. cit. note 1, p. 3. 6 Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 13 April 2015. 7 GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 7. 8 GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 7; Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, pp. 29–32. Figure 23 based on country-specific data and sources provided throughout this section. 9 WWEA, “New Record in Worldwide Wind Installations: More than 50 GW Additional Wind Power Capacity, Wind Power Worldwide Close to 370 GW,” press release (Bonn: 5 February 2015); FTI Consulting, “Record Year for the Global Top 10 Turbine OEMs,” press release (London: 23 February 2015), http://www. fticonsulting.com/global2/press-releases/united-states/record- year-global-top-10-turbine-oems.aspx. The large market in 2014 was due primarily to China as well as to the rush to install before policy changes, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 29. 10 Least-cost from Foreword in GWEC and Greenpeace International, Global Wind Energy Outlook 2014 (Brussels and Amsterdam: October 2014), p. 3; also, see references for industry text below. New markets from GWEC, op. cit. note 1; Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1; and WWEA, op. cit. note 1. 11 Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 9 March 2015. 12 The top five in 2014 were Denmark (876.8 W per person), Sweden (557.9 W), Germany (499.6 W), Spain (481.5 W), and Ireland (470.1 W), followed by Portugal (454.4 W), Canada (278.3 W), Austria (254.8 W), Estonia (240.6 W), and the United States (206.2 W), from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. The top five in 2013 were Denmark (863 W per person), Sweden (487.6 W), Spain (420.5 W), Portugal (412 W), and Ireland (381 W), followed by Germany (372.1 W per capita), Canada (209.7 W), Estonia (191.2 W), Austria (182.2 W), and the United States (167.7 W), from WWEA, World Wind Energy Report 2013 (Bonn: 2014). 13 Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 28 October 2014; FTI Consulting, op. cit. note 9; Shi Pengfei, Chinese Wind Energy Association (CWEA), personal communication with REN21, 1 April 2015. See also GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 38. 14 Additions of 23,196 MW and total of 114,609 GW from CWEA, provided by Shi, op. cit. note 13, and from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 7; added 23,196 MW from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 30. Total also from National Energy Board, cited by China National Energy Administration (CNEA), “Wind Power Industry Monitoring,” 12 February 2015, http://www.nea.gov.cn/2015- 02/12/c_133989991.htm (using Google Translate). China added 23,350 MW for a total of 114,763 MW from WWEA, op. cit. note 1; added 26,150 MW for a total of 112,890 MW, from China Renewable Energy Engineering Institute (CREEI), Wind Power Statistical Evaluation Report of China (in Chinese), 14 April 2015, provided by Shi Pengfei, CWEA, personal communication with REN21, 15 April 2015. Note that the differences in statistics likely result from differences in what is counted and when; higher additions noted by CREEI probably include some capacity that other sources counted for 2013. 15 Figures of 20,720 MW for a total of 95,810 MW, from China Electricity Council, provided by Shi, op. cit. note 13; China added 19.81 GW and 96.37 GW from National Energy Board, cited by CNEA, op. cit. note 14; and China added 20,160 MW for a total of 97,316 MW certified and grid-connected capacity that was receiving the FIT premium by year’s end, from CREEI, op. cit. note 14. As above, differences in statistics likely result at least in part from differences in what is counted and when. Note that most of the capacity added in 2014 was feeding the grid by year’s end. The difference in statistics among Chinese organisations and agencies is explained by the fact that they count different things: installed capacity refers to capacity that is constructed and has wires carrying electricity from the turbines to a substation; certified wind power capacity has undergone up to several months of test feeding into the grid; capacity qualifies as grid-connected (included in China Electricity Council statistics) once certification is granted and operators begin receiving the FIT premium payment, which can take weeks or even months. It is no longer the case that thousands of turbines stand idle awaiting connection in China because projects must be permitted to start construction; however, there is still a 2–10 month lag from when turbines are wire-connected to the substation until the process of certification and payment of FIT premium is complete. Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 20 April 2015. 16 Wind generation from China Electricity Council, available in Chinese at http://www.cec.org.cn/guihuayutongji/gongxufenxi/ dianliyunxingjiankuang/2015-02-02/133565.html, provided by Liming Qiao, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2015; share of output from CREEI, op. cit. note 14; share in 2013 from China Electricity Council, provided by Shi Pengfei, CWEA, personal communication with REN21, 14 March 2014. 17 Top provinces and shares, from CREEI, op. cit. note 14. Inner Mongolia led with 22,312.31 MW, followed by Gansu Province (10,725.95 MW), Hebei Province (9,872.4 MW), and Xinjiang (9,668.06 MW), from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 40. Benefitting from transmission and management, from idem., p. 40. 18 GWEC, op. cit. note 1, pp. 38–41. New high-voltage lines under construction helping to address the curtailment problem also from Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 11 February 2015; incentives for development in less-windy areas from J. Matthew Roney, “Wind Power Beats Nuclear Again in China,” Earth Policy Release (Washington, DC: 5 March 2015), www.earth-policy.org/data_highlights/2015/highlights50. 19 National Energy Board, cited by CNEA, op. cit. note 14. 14.9 TWh from Shi Pengfei, CWEA, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2015. It should be taken into account that 2014 was a low wind speed year compared to average, from Shi, op. cit. note 13. 20 Yang Jianxiang, “Curtailment Solutions Boost Confidence in China,” Wind Power Monthly, 30 September 2014, http://www. windpowermonthly.com/article/1314288/curtailment-solutions- boost-confidence-china; Sawyer, op. cit. note 6. Note that “measures are being taken on a trial basis to allow wind to power heating facilities in winter and fine-tune the administration of rationed grid feed-in on different power sources. Successful trials show these measures help solve the curtailment problem, too,” from Jianxiang, op. cit. this note. For more on use of wind for heating purposes, as well as hydrogen production, see CNEA, “National Energy Board on Doing: 2015 Annual Wind Power Consumptive Notification Related Work,” States to New Energy, 23 March 2015, http://zfxxgk.nea.gov.cn/auto87/201504/ t20150407_1900.htm (using Google Translate). 21 Sawyer, op. cit. note 18. 22 Freddie G. Lazaro, “2014 Was Year of Wind Energy,” Manila Bulletin, 29 December 2014, http://www.mb.com.ph/2014-was- year-of-wind-energy/; Iris Gonzales, “SEA’s Biggest Wind Farm Powers Luzon,” Philippine Star, 9 November 2014, https://ph.news. yahoo.com/sea-biggest-wind-farm-powers-000000102.html. The Philippines added 317 MW, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 30; added 150 MW for a total of 216 MW, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 7; and added 183 MW for a total of 216 MW from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. 23 Pakistan and Japan from GWEC, “Global Wind Statistics BACK

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