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GSR 2015

207 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT Siemens CSP Assets,” CSP World, 18 September 2013, http://www.csp-world.com/news/20130918/001173/ abengoas-subsidiary-rioglass-has-bought-siemens-csp-assets. 31 Heba Hashem, “AREVA Exits CSP After Net Loss in First Half 2014,” CSP Today, 1 August 2014, http://social.csptoday.com/ markets/what-does-areva%E2%80%99s-csp-exit-mean-india. 32 “Schott Stops CSP Receiver Production in Its Factory at Mitterteich, Germany,” CSP-World, 26 August 2014, http://www. csp-world.com/news/20140826/001370/schott-stops-csp- receiver-production-its-factory-mitterteich-germany. 33 Based on companies active in projects under development or construction, or brought into operation in 2014, and on sources listed in Endnote 1. 34 Estimate derived from NREL, op. cit. note 1, and from “CSP Today Global Tracker,” op. cit. note 1. 35 Jason Deign, “What Alstom’s Ashalim Project Means for CSP,” CSP Today, 8 August 2014, http://social.csptoday.com/markets/ what-alstom%E2%80%99s-ashalim-project-means-csp. 36 Castillo, op. cit. note 22. 37 Frederick H. Morse, Abengoa Solar, personal communication with REN21, 28 April 2015. 38 Juan Barragan and Mark Schmitz, “Heatcrete or Molten Salt?” CSP Today, 13 February 2015, http://social.csptoday.com/ technology/heatcrete-or-molten-salt; Susan Kraemer, “SunShot Explores Chemistry to Cut CSP Storage Costs in ELEMENTS Awards,” CSP Today, 20 June 2014, http://social.csptoday.com/ technology/sunshot-explores-chemistry-cut-csp-storage-costs- elements-awards; Andrew Williams, “Italian Project Shows Strong Potential for Sand-based CSP,” CSP Today, 11 April 2014, http:// social.csptoday.com/technology/italian-project-shows-strong- potential-sand-based-csp; Susan Kraemer, “Two SunShot Awards Investigate Perovskites for CSP Thermochemical Storage,” CSP Today, 4 July 2014, http://social.csptoday.com/technology/two- sunshot-awards-investigate-perovskites-csp-thermochemical- storage. 39 “Weekly Intelligence Brief: December 15–22,” CSP Today, 22 December 2014, http://social.csptoday.com/markets/ weekly-intelligence-brief-december-15-22. 40 Dave Renné, International Solar Energy Society, personal communication with REN21, 14 April 2015. 41 Jason Deign, “The Role of Storage in Cutting CSP Costs,” CSP Today, 6 March 2015, http://social.csptoday.com/technology/ role-storage-cutting-csp-costs. 42 “Can CSP Become Cost-Competitive by 2020?” CSP Today, 1 September 2014, http://social.csptoday.com/markets/ can-csp-become-cost-competitive-2020. 43 Garcia Iglesias, op. cit. note 1. 1 Franz Mauthner, AEE-Institute for Sustainable Technologies (AEE- INTEC), Gleisdorf, Austria, personal communications with REN21, March–May 2015; Franz Mauthner and Werner Weiss, Solar Heat Worldwide: Markets and Contribution to the Energy Supply 2013 (Gleisdorf, Austria: International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC), 2015). 2 Based on data from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1, and from Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. 3 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1; Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. Note that collector area (and respective capacity) in operation were estimated by Mauthner and Weiss based on official country reports regarding the lifetime basis used; where such reports were not available, a 25-year lifetime was assumed except in the case of China. In 2014, China settled on a new methodology for calculating cumulative capacity, which assumes a 10-year lifetime for Chinese-made systems. Data were adjusted to reflect this change. Also, note that in 2004 the represented associations from Austria, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States, as well as the European Solar Thermal Industry Federation (ESTIF) and the IEA-SHC, agreed to use a factor of 0.7 kWth/m2 to derive the nominal capacity from the area of installed collectors; this conversion rate is also used in the GSR. 4 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. 5 IEA-Energy Technology Systems Analysis (IEA-ETSAP) and International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Solar Heating and Cooling for Residential Applications, Technology Brief R12 (Bonn: January 2015), p. 1, http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/ Publications/IRENA_ETSAP_Tech_Brief_R12_Solar_Thermal_ Residential_2015.pdf. 6 Preliminary estimate from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1, and from Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. Note that the estimate does not consider air collectors. 7 Based on data from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1, and from Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. Figure 19 from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. 8 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. Note that Mauthner and Weiss publish data for India by fiscal year (as recorded by the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)), rather than by calendar year. 9 Ibid. Figure 20 from idem. Note that the 2013 data in Figure 20 are total installations of water collectors and include replacement capacity, which accounts for a large share of China’s additions. 10 ETC accounted for approximately 90% of China’s market and about 70% of India’s in 2013, based on data from Mauthner, op. cit. note 1, and on Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. 11 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. 12 Franz Mauthner and Werner Weiss, Solar Heat Worldwide: Markets and Contribution to the Energy Supply 2012 (Gleisdorf, Austria: IEA-SHC, May 2014), p. 32; Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. Pumped systems are especially common in Central and Northern Europe as well as in North America. Thermosyphon systems are widespread particularly in China, as well as in Southern Europe, Latin America, the MENA region, and sub-Saharan Africa. 13 Slowdown continued from Mauthner, op. cit. note 1; estimated 2014 data from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. Estimates for 2014 are based on available data from Austria, China, Germany, and India; data for remaining countries were estimated by Mauthner and Weiss according to their trends for the previous two years. Figure 21 based on data from Franz Mauthner and Werner Weiss, AEE-INTEC, personal communication with REN21, April and May 2015. 14 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. 15 Bärbel Epp, “Global View: Solar Thermal Markets Transitioning from Residential to Commercial,” Solar Thermal World, 3 March 2015, http://www.solarthermalworld.org/content/global-view- solar-thermal-markets-transitioning-residential-commercial; Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 12, pp. 6–7. 16 China’s market was down 17.6% relative to 2013 (when it was up about 2.6%), per data from Chinese Solar Thermal Industry Federation (CSTIF), provided by Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. China’s market peaked in 2013, per idem. Other sources report that China’s market peaked in 2012, per Jiuchen Wang, Secretary General of the China Association of Rural Energy Industry, cited in Bärbel Epp, “China: Association Assembly Titled ‘Keep the Faith in Reform and Innovation’,” Solar Thermal World, 30 December 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/china-association-assembly- titled-keep-faith-reform-and-innovation. 17 All based on data from CSTIF, provided by Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. SOLAR THERMAL HEATING AND COOLING BACK

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