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GSR 2015 - Transport

117 06 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT The global lighting market is in the process of transitioning from energy-intensive incandescent lamps to LEDs.29 LED lamps consume up to 90% less energy than traditional incandescent bulbs to produce the same light output, and can provide an estimated six times as many hours of illumination.30 In recent years, LED technology has advanced rapidly, while costs have dropped significantly; the cost of a 60-watt-equivalent LED bulb fell nearly 40% between 2011 and 2012.31 National bans on incandescent light bulbs have led to a proliferation of LED products on the market in a number of countries, resulting in rapid deployment.32 Leading LED markets include Europe (23% of the global market), China (21%), the United States (19%), and Japan (9%).33 Appliances and equipment consume energy when they are in active operation. In addition, many also consume energy when they are not performing their main function, as they draw “standby power” to maintain signal reception, power an internal clock, or for other purposes. In most developed countries, standby power typically represents 5–10% of residential electricity use; in developing countries (particularly in cities), standby consumption represents a smaller but growing share. In commercial buildings, standby consumption makes up a smaller but still significant share of total electricity use. Standby consumption per unit has declined in recent years due to regulations that were in place in most developed countries by 2010.34 TRANSPORT Transport accounts for just under 30% of global final energy demand.35 Of that total, road transport (including light vehicles, buses, and heavy trucks) accounts for 81.4% of transportation energy use, compared to 8% for air transport, 4.5% for water, 3.8% for pipeline, and 2.3% for rail.36 Most emphasis on efficiency improvements to date has been in the area of road transport. Key trends in the road transport sector have included fuel- economy improvements in private vehicles, increased penetration of electric (EV) and hybrid (HEV) vehicles, and shifts to more sustainable modes of passenger travel (e.g., public transportation, rail, and bus rapid transit (BRT) systemsi ). As a result, fuel economy performance has improved steadily over the past 15 years. Both globally and in several regions (the exceptions being Latin America and the Middle East), average energy intensityii in this sector declined substantially from 2000 to 2013.37 (p See Figure 38.) In the United States, for example, the fuel economy of cars and light trucks has improved by approximately 25% during the past decade, and by 85% since 1975. The most advanced diesel and gasoline model cars available on the US market in 2014—all gasoline hybrid vehicles—had fuel economy values in the range of 30–32 kilometres per litre (70–76 miles per gallon).38 i - BRT is a high-quality bus-based transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective services at metro-level capacities. ii - The energy intensity of the transport sector is calculated as the ratio of the energy consumption of transport to GDP. It is not related to the value added of the sector, as this value added reflects only the activity of transport companies, which represent only a part of the total consumption of the sector (e.g., usually less than 60% in EU countries). Figure 38. Energy Intensity in Transportation by Country and Region, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 +0.3%-1.5% -1.5% -1.5% -1.1% 0%-1.9%-1.3%-1.6% Compound Annual Change (%) Figure 38. Energy Intensity in Transportation, World and by Region, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 Europe CIS North America Latin America Asia Pacific Africa Middle- East toe / USD 1,000 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 World 2000 2005 2010 2013 Source: See Endnote 37 for this section.

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