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GSR 2015 - Industry

118 06 ENERGY EFFICIENCY: RENEWABLE ENERGY’S TWIN PILLAR Electric vehicles convert about 59–62% of electrical energy from the grid to power at the wheels; this compares to conventional gasoline vehicles that convert only about 17–21% of the energy stored in gasoline to power at the wheelsi .39 Between 2008 and 2013, global sales of EVs rocketed from approximately 10,000 vehicles to more than 400,000 vehicles, with a growth rate averaging more than 100% annually.40 The share of EVs in the global and national markets is still small, however. In 2013, the highest market share was achieved by Norway (6.1%), followed by the Netherlands (5.6%) and California (4%, compared with 1.3% in the United States as a whole).41 Switching from private cars to public transport, such as BRT systems, also can help to increase efficiency of mobility. As of 2013, more than 150 cities around the world had implemented some kind of BRT system, providing mobility to an estimated 28 million passengers each weekday.42 INDUSTRY Approximately 40% of global final energy consumption occurs in the industrial sector in the forms of electricity, heat, and mechanical energy.43 Between 2000 and 2013, global energy intensity of this sector declined steadily; energy intensity dropped in most of the world’s regions as well, with the exception of the Middle East.44 (p See Figure 39.) The most energy-intensive industries are chemical (including refineries), metals and alloys, pulp and paper, and cement.45 Each of these industries offers substantial potential for energy efficiency improvements through the application of existing best practices. The technical potential to reduce energy use at the global level is estimated to be 26% in the pulp and paper industry, 24% in the chemical industry, 21% for iron and steel, 18% in the cement industry, and 11% for aluminium production.46 A positive trend that is improving energy efficiency in this sector is the expanded implementation of energy management systems (EnMS) at industrial facilities, particularly under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 50001ii . EnMS was implemented at more than 7,300 sites worldwide between 2011 (when ISO 50001 was established) and May 2014.47 i - For a full accounting of well-to-wheel energy use in internal combustion engines, it would be necessary to calculate the energy involved in extracting, refining, and transporting fuel; likewise, for EVs, one must account for extracting and transporting fuel to power plants, energy loss in power generation, and losses associated with power transmission. EV efficiency increases significantly if the electricity source is renewable, particularly if generated on-site. ii - EnMS enable manufacturers, corporations, utilities, energy service companies, and other organisations to reduce energy costs and carbon emissions. An increasing number of facilities is operating under ISO 50001, an energy management framework for organisations and facilities to manage their energy consumption, covering various aspects of energy procurement and use. Figure 39. Energy Intensity in Industry by Country and Region, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 -0.5%-2.2% -0.6% -2.6% -1.1% +1.7%- 4.0%-1.9%-0.9% Compound Annual Change (%) Europe CIS North America Latin America Asia Pacific Africa Middle- EastWorld toe / USD 1,000 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0 2000 2005 2010 2013 Figure 39. Energy Intensity in Industry by Country and Region, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 Source: See Endnote 44 for this section.

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