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GSR 2015

192 Harnesses Sustainable Geothermal Energy,” Power Magazine, 1 August 2013, http://www.powermag.com/contact-energy-ltd-s- te-mihi-power-station-harnesses-sustainable-geothermal-energy; Contact Energy, “The Te Mihi Project,” http://www.contactenergy. co.nz/web/ourprojects/temihi. 28 Kevin Fare, Brian Carey, and Chris Bromley, “Australasian Update – 2014,” presentation at the Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting 2014, Portland, OR, 28 September–1 October 2014, http://www.geothermal.org/Annual_Meeting/PDFs/ Australasia.pdf. 29 Mekuria Lemma, Ethiopian Electric Power, presentation at the Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting 2014, Portland, OR, 28 September–1 October 2014, http://www.geothermal.org/ Annual_Meeting/PDFs/Mekuria%20Lemma%20Geothermal.pdf. 30 S. Kebede, Geological Survey of Ethiopia, “Status of Geothermal Exploration and Development in Ethiopia,” in Proceedings of the Fifth African Rift Geothermal Conference (Arusha, Tanzania: 27 October–2 November 2014), http://abstracts.theargeo.org/ fullpaper/Status%20of%20Geothermal%20Exploration%20 and%20Development%20in%20Ethiopia%20(2).pdf. 31 World Bank, “Ethiopia Set to Expand Electricity Through Clean Geothermal Energy,” press release (Washington, DC: 29 May 2014), http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press- release/2014/05/29/ethiopia-set-to-expand-electricity-through- clean-geothermal-energy. 32 Abdoulkader Khaireh et al., Djibouti Office for Geothermal Energy Development, “Geothermal Development in Republic of Djibouti – A Country Update Report,” in Proceedings of the Fifth African Rift Geothermal Conference (Arusha, Tanzania: 27 October–2 November 2014), http://abstracts.theargeo.org/fullpaper/ Argeo%20C5%20_Djibouti-country_update_final_20140.pdf. 33 Karl Gawell, “The Big Question: Where Do You See Renewable Energy Growth Potential in 2015?” Renewable Energy World, 9 March 2015, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/ article/2015/03/the-big-question-where-do-you-see-renewable- energy-growth-potential-in-2015?page=3. 34 Paul Moya, West Japan Engineering Consultants, Inc., “Geothermal Development in Central America,” presentation at the Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting 2014, Portland, OR, 28 September–1 October 2014, http://www. geothermal.org/Annual_Meeting/PDFs/Central%20America.pdf; Ormat Technologies, “Ormat Completes Acquisition of Platanares Geothermal Project in Honduras,” press release (Reno, NV: 2 December 2013), http://www.ormat.com/news/latest-items/ ormat-completes-acquisition-platanares-geothermal-project- honduras. 35 Moya, op. cit. note 34; European Investment Bank, “Las Pailas Geothermal Project,” 6 May 2013, http://www.eib.org/projects/ pipeline/2013/20130037.htm. 36 Lund and Boyd, op. cit. note 1; Luis C.A. Gutiérrez-Negrín, International Geothermal Association and Mexican Geothermal Association, personal communication with REN21, March 2015. Growth of 1.1 GW in 2014 is not specified in the source but is based on the five-year annualised growth rate for 2009–2014. 37 Based on historical values from Lund and Boyd, op. cit. note 1. 38 Lund and Boyd, op. cit. note 1. 39 Ibid. 40 See, for example, Ibid. 41 “High-temperature” stands for “high-enthalpy”, which refers not only to the relative temperature of a geothermal resource but also to the relative pressure and volume of the geothermal fluid, which together determine the thermodynamic potential of the resource. See, for example, Eva Schill, Thomas Kohl, and Ladsi Rybach, “European Region – Historic Legacy – Lasting Future,” presentation at the Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting 2014, Portland, OR, 28 September–1 October 2014, http://www.geothermal.org/Annual_Meeting/PDFs/Europe.pdf. 42 EGEC, op. cit. note 14; Distretto Delle Energie Rinnovabili, “Al via a Montieri la rete di teleriscaldamento geotermico,” 7 November 2014, http://www. distrettoenergierinnovabili.it/der/s/geotermia-news/notizie/ al-via-a-montieri-la-rete-di-teleriscaldamento-geotermico. 43 EGEC, op. cit. note 14. 44 Cofely – GDF Suez, “Kickoff Geothermal Drilling to Power Future Heating Network Arcueil and Gentilly,” press release (Paris: 4 December, 2013), http://en.cofely-gdfsuez.com/medias/ kickoff-geothermal-drilling-to-power-the-future-heating-network- arcueil-and-gentilly; Cofely Réseaux – GDF Suez, “Arcueil- Gentilly: Creation of a Heating Network from Scratch,” undated, http://www.cofelyreseaux-gdfsuez.com/en/us/project-references. 45 Philippe Dumas, EGEC, personal communication with REN21, March 2015. 46 Fortum, “Fortum and St1 to Start a Pilot Project for Geothermal Heat Production in Espoo,” press release (Fortum, Finland: 28 November 2014), https://www.fortum.com/en/mediaroom/Pages/ fortum-and-st1-to-start-a-pilot-project-for-geothermal-heat- production-in-espoo.aspx. 47 Lund and Boyd, op. cit. note 1; Gutiérrez-Negrín, op. cit. note 36. 48 Ibid. 49 United Nations, “Global Geothermal Alliance Action Statement and Action Plan” (New York: 23 September 2014), http:// www.un.org/climatechange/summit/wp-content/uploads/ sites/2/2014/09/ENERGY-Global-Geothermal-Alliance.pdf. 50 World Bank, “Geothermal Energy: Expansion Well Underway in Developing Countries,” 3 December 2014, http://www.worldbank. org/en/news/feature/2014/12/03/geothermal-energy-expansion- well-underway-in-developing-countries. 51 EGEC, op. cit. note 14. 52 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 2014 Annual Report – Geothermal Technologies Office (Washington, DC: March 2015). 53 U.S. DOE, “How an Enhanced Geothermal System Works,” http:// www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/egs_animation.html. 54 Here, “hydrothermal” refers to the thermal energy contained in geothermal fluid. U.S. DOE, op. cit. note 52. 55 See, for example, Union of Concerned Scientists, “Environmental Impact of Geothermal Energy,” http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_ energy/our-energy-choices/renewable-energy/environmental- impacts-geothermal-energy.html. 56 “Hawaii Fines Geothermal Plant for Hydrogen Sulfide Release,” Hawaii News Now, 15 January 2015, http://www.hawaiinewsnow.com/story/27862010/ hawaii-fines-geothermal-plant-for-hydrogen-sulfide-release. 57 Morgunblaðið, “Tilraunin getur hreyft við jarðlögum,“ 25 March 2014, http://www.mbl.is/frettir/innlent/2014/04/02/ tilraunin_getur_hreyft_vid_jardlogum/. 58 Enel, “Enel’s Hybrid Energy Future,” 23 January 2015, http:// www.enel.com/en-GB/media/news/enels-hybrid-energy-future/ p/090027d9823e51e0; U.S. DOE, op. cit. note 52. 59 Enel Green Power, “In Toscana il Primo Impianto al Mondo Che Integra Geotermia e Biomassa,” press release (Rome: 13 November 2014), http://www.enelgreenpower.com/en-GB/ media_investor/press_releases/release.aspx?iddoc=1662786. 60 Bertani, op. cit. note 1; Gutiérrez-Negrín, op. cit. note 36; EGEC, op. cit. note 14. The remainder counts 26 back-pressure plants that represent 181 MW and 3% of generation. 61 Bertani, op. cit. note 1; Gutiérrez-Negrín, op. cit. note 36. 62 EGEC, op. cit. note 14. 63 Bertani, op. cit. note 1. 64 EGEC, op. cit. note 14. Turboden (Italy) has been a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries since 2013; see Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, “Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Technology,” http:// www.mhi-global.com/products/category/organic_rankine_cycle. html. Exergy (Italy) was acquired by Italy’s Maccaferri Industrial Group in 2010, and Cryostar (France) has been part of the Linde Group since 2006; see Gruppo Industriale Maccaferri, http://www.maccaferri.it/index.php/en/energy, and The Linde Group, “Cryostar SAS,” http://www.linde-engineering.com/en/ about_linde_engineering/linde_engineering_locations/cryostar/ index.html ENDNOTES 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS – GEOTHERMAL POWER AND HEAT BACK

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