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GSR 2015

199 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT op. cit. note 2; see also “11 Solar Plants Commissioned in Israel,” PV News, May 2014, p. 7; Jordan from Mridul Chadha, “Jordan Awards 200 MW Capacity in Its First Renewable Energy Tender,” Clean Technica, 18 February 2015, jordan-awards-200-mw-capacity-first-renewable-energy-tender/. 67 Hashem, op. cit. note 65; Hashem, “PV Installations in the UAE,” PV Insider, 29 April 2014, photovoltaics/pv-installations-surge-uae; large tenders in UAE from Mohamed Youssef Bastaki, UAE Ministry of Foreign Affairs, personal communication with REN21, 17 April 2015. 68 ‘Middle East-Africa Solar PV Demand Will Increase 625% This Year,” Clean Technica, 22 March 2013, http://cleantechnica. com/2013/03/22/middle-east-africa-solar-pv-demand-will-reach- 1-gigawatt-this-year-solarbuzz/; “PV in Saudi Arabia,” Sunshine Middle East, Riyadh and Madrid, http://www.sunshinemiddleeast. com/solar-pv-in-ksa/, viewed 13 May 2015, Ahmed Nada, “MENA Solar Dispatch: The Middle East’s Solar Energy Sunrise,” First Solar, 30 October 2013, press-center/blog/2014/november/mena-solar-dispatch. Sidebar 5 from the following sources: driving up consumption from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), OECD FAO Agricultural Outlook 2013–2022 (Paris: 2012), pp. 34, 42, 56, and from International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Renewable Energy in the Water, Energy, Food Nexus (Abu Dhabi: 2015), p. 13, aspx?mnu=Subcat&PriMenuID=36&CatID=141&SubcatID=496; share of current consumption from idem, p. 13; expected growth by 2035 from World Bank, Thirsty Energy: Securing Energy in a Water-Constrained World (Washington, DC: 2013), p. 1, publication/Thirsty-Energy-Initiative-Summary.pdf; agri-food energy and water demand from IRENA, Renewable Energy in the Water, Energy, Food Nexus, op. cit. this note, p. 35; IRENA study from idem, p. 13; reductions in fossil fuel generation as a result of displacement by wind generation led to estimated water savings of 138 billion litres (36.5 billion gallons) in 2013 in the United States, per American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), “Employment and Environmental Impacts,” U.S. Wind Industry Annual Market Report 2013 (Washington, DC: April 2014), aspx?ItemNumber=6315&RDtoken=55525&userID=; since its completion in 2012, a 25 MW solar power plant is helping to provide electricity services and irrigated and treated water in the Modesto Irrigation District in California, per “25 MW Solar Power Plant for US Irrigation District Complete,” Renewable Energy Technology, 31 October 2012, http://www.renewable- plant-us-irrigation-district-complete; in Australia, solar-powered surface and bore pumps are used widely on farms and outback stations to provide water to livestock and for farming, per Energy Matters, “Solar Bore and Surface Water Pumping,” http://www., viewed 14 February 2015; in 2014, the Indian government announced the installation of 26 million solar water pumps for irrigation, per Katherine Tweed, “India Plans to Install 26 Million Solar-powered Water Pumps,” IEEE Spectrum, 20 February 2014, http://spectrum. solar-water-pumps; To date, an estimated 11,600 such pumps have been installed in India, per Anand Upadhyay, “The Rise of Solar Pumps in India,” Clean Technica, 11 August 2014, http://; IRENA, Desalination Using Renewable Energy (Abu Dhabi: 2012), p. 9, ETSAP%20Tech%20Brief%20I12%20Water-Desalination.pdf; European Research Council, Causes of the 2007-2008 Global Food Crisis Identified (Brussels: European Commission, 2011), pdf/225na1_en.pdf; FAO, “Seeking End to Loss and Waste of Food Along Production Chain,” 2014, seeking-end-to-loss-and-waste-of-food-along-production-chain/ en/; Asian Development Bank, “Using Solar Power to Dry Fruit for Farmers in Northern Pakistan,” 15 September 2014, http:// pakistan; Energypedia, “Biogas-powered Evaporative Cooling for Uganda’s Dairy Industry,” Powered_Evaporative_Cooling_for_Uganda’s_Dairy_Industry, updated 7 January 2015; bioenergy and farm productivity from IRENA, Renewable Energy in the Water, Energy, Food Nexus, op. cit. this note, p. 17; methodologies from idem, p. 87; SEI WEAP & LEAP information from Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Integrating the WEAP and LEAP System to Support Planning and Analysis at the Water-Energy Nexus (Somerville, MA: 2012), http://www. land-water-resources/SEI-2012-WEAP-LEAP-Factsheet.pdf; FAO framework from FAO, Walking the Nexus Talk: Assessing the Water- Energy-Food Nexus in the Context of the Sustainable Energy for All Initiative (Rome: 2014),; IRENA framework from IRENA, Renewable Energy in the Water, Energy, Food Nexus, op. cit. this note; evaluation of Ethiopia’s Growth and Transformation Plan using Stockholm Environment Institute’s WEAP-LEAP model from SEI, Applying the Nexus – Meeting Ethiopia’s Development Goals by Addressing Links Between Water, Energy and Food (Stockholm: 2014), p. 2, http://sei-international. org/mediamanager/documents/Publications/SEI-PolicyBrief- Karlberg-nexus-Ethiopia.pdf; Mauritius case study using the MuSIASEM nexus assessment framework from Liphe4, The Nexus Between Energy, Food, Land Use, and Water – Application of a Multi-scale Integrated Approach – Mauritus Case Study, 2013,; GIZ is trying to integrate nexus thinking into urban development and planning by working with 10 major Asian cities, per German Federal Government, “The Urban Nexus in Asian Cities, 19 November 2013, the-urban-nexus-in-asian-cities.html; ECOWAS member states are working to coordinate regional water, energy, and food policies and to develop an integrated agenda, per German Federal Government, “Ensuring Water, Food, and Energy Security in the ECOWAS Region,” 2 May 2012, en/practice/view__553/ensuring-water-food-and-energy-security- in-the-ecowas-region.html, and The Nexus Network, “What Works at the Nexus? The Nexus Network Annual Conference” (London: 2014), p. 1, uploads/2014/09/Nexus_Network_Conference_Poster-session- abstracts.pdf. 69 At least 70 projects and 14 countries based on the following sources: Denis Lenardic, “Large-scale Photovoltaic Power Plants Ranking 1-50,” pvresources, PVPowerPlants/Top50.aspx, updated 22 February 2014, 15 March 2014, 22 February 2015, and 1 March 2015; Denis Lenardic, pvresources, personal communication with REN21, 29 March 2015. 70 Top 10 from ibid. Topaz Solar, in California, achieved full commercial operation with completion of the final 40 MW phase and was finished ahead of schedule in late 2014; it is made up of 9 million solar panels, from Eric Weshoff, “Topaz, the Largest Solar Plant in the World, Is Now Fully Operational,” Greentech Media, 24 November 2014, articles/read/550-megawatts-AC-to-be-exact. Desert Sunlight from Herman K. Trabish, “Desert Sunlight 550 MW Solar PV Project Goes Online,” Utility Dive, 15 January 2015, http://www. goes-online/353325/, and Victoria Cavaliere, “Solar Farm Capable of Powering 160,000 Homes Opens in California,” Reuters, 11 February 2015, Other very large-scale projects in the United States include the Ague Caliente solar project (290 MW) that came on line in Arizona in early 2014, from Peter W. Davidson, “Agua Caliente, World’s Largest Solar Photovoltaic Plant, Helps Advance America’s Solar Leadership,” U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 29 April 2014, http://energy. gov/articles/agua-caliente-worlds-largest-solar-photovoltaic-plant- helps-advance-americas-solar; the Antelope Valley project (242 MW), from DOE, Loan Programs Office, “Power New Markets: Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Solar” (Washington, DC: February 2015), p. 3, DOE_LPO_Utility-Scale_PV_Solar_Markets_February2015. pdf; and the Mount Signal Project (206 MW) in California, from “Abengoa Completes 206MW Mount Signal Project in California, IPOs YieldCo,” PV News, July 2014, pp. 7–8. 71 Approaching 7.1 GW based on Lenardic, “Large-scale Photovoltaic Power Plants Ranking 1-50,” op. cit. note 69, updated 1 March 2015. Note that the 50 plants were all 60 MW and above in size, and located in 12 countries, of which three are in the Americas, four in Asia, four in Europe, and one in Africa. 72 Based on Ibid. Chile and South Africa also from the following: Chile inaugurated a 100 MW plant, said to be the largest in Latin America and built as part of an agreement with the CAP Group, Chile’s largest steel mining company, from Lucy Woods, “SunEdison Inaugurates 100MW Chile Solar Plant,” PV-Tech, 9 June 2014, chile_solar_plant. South Africa also saw completion of two ground-mounted projects totalling 33 MW, from “REIPPP Sees Project Completions in South Africa,” PV News, July 2014, p. 7; and BACK

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