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GSR 2015

217 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT Policy and Market Assessment: A Global Outlook (Delhi: GWEC, December 2014), p. 10, http://www.gwec.net/wp-content/ uploads/2015/02/FOWIND_offshore_wind_policy_and_market_ assessment_15-02-02_LowRes.pdf. 67 China added 200 MW grid-connected capacity for a total of 440 MW grid-connected from Shi, op. cit. note 19; added 229 MW for a total of 658 MW from CWEA, provided by Shukla, op. cit. note 3; added 230 MW for a total of 659 MW from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 40. 68 Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 45. Zhao et al. note that 6.2 GW was under construction in eight countries: Germany (2,589.7 MW), China (1,951 MW), the United Kingdom (749.4 MW), Belgium (129 MW), the Netherlands (129 MW), South Korea (30 MW), the United States (30 MW), and Japan (14 MW), for a total of 6,168 MW under construction; most of these are expected to come on line in 2015. However, the first US project (“Deepwater Wind”, off the coast of Rhode Island) is scheduled to begin construction in mid-2015 and to be operational by end-2016, from Deepwater Wind, “Block Island Wind Farm,” http://dwwind.com/block-island/block-island- project-overview, viewed 15 April 2015. 69 See, for example, “Big Business Rethinks Its Energy Habits,” IRENA Quarterly, October 2014, http://www.irena.org/ Quarterly/IRENA%20Quarterly_October2014.pdf, Rona Fried, “Big Corporations to Utilities: Please Make It Easy to Buy Renewable Energy,” Sustainable Business, 21 July 2014, http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news. display/id/25818; Ehren Goossens, “IKEA Buys Second U.S. Wind Farm, Plans More in Renewables Push,” Bloomberg, 18 November 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-11-18/ ikea-buys-second-u-s-wind-farm-plans-more-in-renewables- push.html. See also Heather Clancy, “IKEA, Swiss Re, Mars, H&M Go All-in on Renewable Energy,” Greenbiz, 22 September 2014, http://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2014/09/22/ ikea-swiss-re-mars-hm-make-100-renewable-energy-pledges. 70 For Australia, see, for example, “Australia’s First Community- Owned Wind Farm in Daylesford,” Castlemaine Independent, 18 October 2013, http://www.castlemaineindependent.org/2013/10/ australias-community-owned-wind-farm-daylesford/, and The Greens, “Unleashing Community-Owned Energy,” http://greens. org.au/community-energy, viewed 11 March 2015; in Canada, for example, the country’s first union-owned and -operated wind turbine came on line, in Ontario (Port Elgin), per Ken Lewenza, President of Canadian Auto Workers (CAW), cited in “CAW Owned and Operated Wind Turbine Begins Operation in Port Elgin, Ontario,” 25 March 2013, http://www.newswire.ca/en/ story/1135425/caw-owned-and-operated-wind-turbine-begins- operation-in-port-elgin-ontario; Japan from Tetsu Iida, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies, Tokyo, personal communication with REN21, 14 January 2014; United States from A.C. Orrell et al., 2012 Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications (Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory, August 2013), p. 59; from Windustry, “Community Wind,” http://www. windustry.org/community-wind, viewed 11 March 2015, and from “Municipalities Drive Wind Power Deployment,” IRENA Quarterly, October 2014, http://www.irena.org/Quarterly/IRENA%20 Quarterly_October2014.pdf. Europe from, for example, Energy4All Limited, “Delivering Community-Owned Green Power,” http:// www.energy4all.co.uk/, viewed 11 March 2015, and from Corbetta, op. cit. note 30. A 2.5 MW community wind farm is to be built in South Lanarkshire, Scotland, with funding acquired in early 2015. Scotland supports community ownership through the Community Energy Empowerment programme, from “Community Wind Farm Lands £8m,” reNEWS, 3 February 2015, http://renews.biz/84971/ community-wind-farm-lands-8m/. See also “Community Wind Energy,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_wind_energy, viewed 11 March 2015. Citizen-owned from Detlef Loy, Loy Energy Consulting, Germany, personal communication with REN21, 13 April 2015. 71 Figure for 2013 from Stefan Gsänger and Jean-Daniel Pitteloud, 2015 Small Wind World Report (Bonn: WWEA and New Energy Husum, March 2015), Summary, http://small-wind.org/ wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Summary_SWWR2015_online. pdf; 2012 increase from Stefan Gsänger and Jean-Daniel Pitteloud, Small Wind World Report 2014 Update (Bonn: WWEA, March 2014), Summary, http://small-wind.org/wp-content/ uploads/2014/03/2014_SWWR_summary_web.pdf. 72 Gsänger and Pitteloud, 2015 Small Wind World Report, op. cit. note 71. Note that these numbers are based on available data, and the total excludes data for Italy (for number of units) and India (number of units and capacity), both of which are important markets. WWEA estimates that the actual total is more than 1 million units worldwide. 73 Global annual installations in 2014 were an estimated 254.9 MW, from Navigant Research, “Small and Medium Wind Power,” http://www.navigantresearch.com/research/small-and-medium- wind-power, viewed 12 February 2014; and Navigant Research, “Worldwide Small & Medium Wind Power Installations Are Expected to Total More than 3.2 Gigawatts from 2014 through 2023,” press release (Boulder, CO: 5 January 2015), https://www. navigantresearch.com/newsroom/worldwide-small-medium- wind-power-installations-are-expected-to-total-more-than-3-2- gigawatts-from-2014-through-2023. 74 WWEA, Small Wind World Report 2014 Update, op. cit. note 71, p. 7; Pike Research, “Small Wind Power,” www.pikeresearch.com/ research/small-wind-power, viewed March 2013; WWEA, Small World Wind Power Report 2013 (Bonn: March 2013), Summary, http://www.wwindea.org/webimages/SWWR_summary.pdf; RenewableUK, Small and Medium Wind UK Market Report (London: October 2013), http://www.renewableuk.com/en/publications/ index.cfm/Small-and-Medium-Wind-UK-Market-Report-2013. Displace diesel from Navigant Research, “Small and Medium Wind Power,” op. cit. note 73; and Navigant Research, “Worldwide Small & Medium Wind Power Installations Are Expected…,” op. cit. note 73. Note that the Navigant report also discusses turbines up to 500 kW. Off-grid and mini-grid applications prevail in developing countries, per Gsänger and Pitteloud, Small Wind World Report 2014 Update, op. cit. note 71, p. 7. Note that globally, interest is increasing with growing demand for distributed generation, from Navigant Research, “Small and Medium Wind Power,” op. cit. note 73; and Navigant Research, “Worldwide Small & Medium Wind Power Installations Are Expected…, ” op. cit. note 73. 75 Gsänger and Pitteloud, 2015 Small Wind World Report, op. cit. note 71. 76 Ibid. 77 United States and competition with solar PV from Navigant Research, “Small and Medium Wind Power,” op. cit. note 73, and Navigant Research, “Worldwide Small & Medium Wind Power Installations Are Expected…,” op. cit. note 73; United Kingdom also from RenewableUK, op. cit. note 74. The U.S. market for new and refurbished small-scale wind turbines declined in 2013 by about 70%, from 18.4 MW in 2012 to 5.6 MW in 2013; the market for new small-scale turbines only fell 44% (from 8.9 MW in 2012 to 5 MW in 2013), from U.S. DOE, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report (Richland, WA: August 2014), pp. iii–iv, 6. In terms of number of installations, the U.S. market saw a 27% decrease in 2013 relative to 2012, and the U.K. market for sub-50 kW new turbines fell by nearly 80%, from Gsänger and Pitteloud, 2015 Small Wind World Report, op. cit. note 71. U.S. momentum building from Navigant Research, “Small and Medium Wind Power,” op. cit. note 73; and Navigant Research, “Worldwide Small & Medium Wind Power Installations Are Expected…,” op. cit. note 73. 78 Easier to finance from Andrew Kruse, Endurance Wind Power Inc., Surrey, Canada, personal communication with REN21, 21 April 2013. Globally, the average size of small turbines is increasing, from 0.66 kW in 2010 to 0.85 kW in 2013, with average size differing from country to country, per Gsänger and Pitteloud, 2015 Small Wind World Report, op. cit. note 71. In the United States, for example, the number of small-scale turbines sold dropped 50% in 2012, while the number of mid-size machines (101–1,000 kW) increased more than 250%, from Orrell et al., op. cit. note 70, p. 3. 79 Orrell et al., op. cit. note 70, p. 47; James Montgomery, “VAWT on the Vineyard: Small Wind Revisited,” Renewable Energy World, 22 November 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/blog/ post/2013/11/vawt-on-the-vineyard-small-wind-revisited. See also Gsänger and Pitteloud, 2015 Small Wind World Report, op. cit. note 71. 80 Repowering definition from International Energy Agency (IEA), Technology Roadmap – Wind Energy, 2013 Edition (Paris: OECD/ IEA, 2013), p. 10. Repowering began in Denmark and Germany, due to a combination of incentives and a large number of ageing turbines. It is driven by technology improvements and the desire to increase output while improving grid compliance and reducing noise and bird mortality, from idem., and from James Lawson, “Repowering Gives New Life to Old Wind Sites,” Renewable Energy World, 17 June 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/ rea/news/article/2013/06/repowering-gives-new-life-to-old-wind- sites. Ultimately, repowering, where it happens, is driven by the economics of the project, and relevance of other factors depends on whether the government puts incentives in place in relation to BACK

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