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GSR 2015 - List of Abbreviations

250 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS BIPV Building-integrated solar photovoltaics BNEF Bloomberg New Energy Finance BOS Balance of system BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa BRT Bus Rapid Transit CDM Clean Development Mechanism CHP Combined heat and power CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CNG Compressed natural gas CO2 Carbon dioxide CPV Concentrating solar photovoltaic CSP Concentrating solar (thermal) power DRE Distributed renewable energy DSM Demand-side management ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States ECREEE ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency EEG German Renewable Energy Law – “Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz“ EJ Exajoule EMEC European Marine Energy Centre EnMS Energy management systems EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPS Energy performance standards ESCO Energy service company EU European Union (specifically the EU-28) EV Electric vehicle FAME Fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) FIP Feed-in premium FIT Feed-in tariff FPIC Free, Prior, and Informed Consent FUNAE Energy Fund of Mozambique – “Fundo de Energia“ GACC Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves GEF Global Environment Facility GFR Global Futures Report GHP Ground-source heat pump GSR Renewables Global Status Report GW / GWth Gigawatt / Gigawatt-thermal GWh Gigawatt-hour HSAP Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol HVO Hydrotreated vegetable oil IEA International Energy Agency IFC International Finance Corporation IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IRENA International Renewable Energy Agency kW / kWh Kilowatt / kilowatt-hour LCOE Levelised cost of energy LED Light-emitting diode LPG Liquefied petroleum gas m2 Square metre m3 Cubic metre MENA Middle East and North Africa MFI Microfinance institution MSW Municipal solid waste MW / MWh Megawatt / megawatt-hour NGO Non-governmental organisation NREAP National Renewable Energy Action Plan NZEB Net zero energy building nZEB Nearly zero energy buildings OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PPP Public-private partnership PTC Production tax credit PV Photovoltaic RPS Renewable portfolio standard SE4ALL United Nations Sustainable Energy for All initiative SHS Solar home system SPS Solar pico system (pico PV) SWH Solar water heater / solar water heating toe Tonne of oil equivalent TW / TWh Terawatt / Terawatt-hour UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization USD United States dollar VAT Value-added tax Wp Watt-peak (nominal power) WTO World Trade Organization Page 22 Windmill in Sweden / © Courtesy of Vesta Wind System Page 23 District Heating facility Hurup Thy, Denmark / © World Futures Council Page 25 Installation of solar decentralized renewable energy for energy access / © Soltys Page 26 Octopus / Olga Visavi, shutterstock Page 36 Installation of solar panels on roof / Daniele Pietrobelli, shutterstock Page 38 Sunflower / Konstantin Sutyagin, shutterstock Page 41 Ethanol Manufacturing Plant in Brazil / © AFNR, shutterstock Page 44 Sugar cane transport for ethanol production, in Joao Pessoa, Brazil / © Alessio Moiola, shutterstock Page 45 Fuel production plant / Jason Lee, shutterstock Page 47 Biodiesel factory / Chiqui, shutterstock Page 49 Hellisheiði power plant, Iceand / and 51 © Kristján Pétursson Page 52 The Limmernboden reservoir in Switzerland / © Andritz Page 55 Atlantis AK-1000 tidal turbine / © Hallin Marine Page 56 Ocean Hydropower Turbine / © OpenHydro Page 58 Solar panels on roofs / Gyuszko-Photo, shutterstock Page 59 Solar panel system / Migel, shutterstock Page 60 Solar PV / wattboonrod, shutterstock Page 61 Solar panels on mountain / ColorWorld Page 63 Solar photovoltaic panels / Lucarelli Temistocle, shutterstock Page 63 Solar panels in Granada, Spain / Vibe Images, shutterstock Page 68 Panel Vacuum solar water heating system / jeep2499, shutterstock Page 71 Wind turbine on a field / ER_09, shutterstock Page 78 Dandelion / MaestroPhoto, shutterstock Page 84 Macarthur, Australia / © Courtesy of Vesta Wind System Page 85 A parabolic trough collector installation in Newcastle, Australia. © Dr. Uli Jakob, Solem Consulting Page 86 Bees on honeycomb / Darios, shutterstock Page 95 Air-conditioned bus station in Dubai / Patryk Kosmider, shutterstock Page 97 Solar Panel in the city of Dubai / Philip Lange, shutterstock Page 98 Solar powered street lights used to light-up the streets of a community in Oregon / © Greenshine New Energy Page 102 Firefly / Anita Patterson Peppers, shutterstock Page 104 Cooking outside of home, Burkina Faso / Hector Conesa, shutterstock Page 109 Old house in rural india with wind mill / KreativKolors, shutterstock Page 111 Solar PV Off-grid, Myanmar / © Christine Lins Page 111 Local Market, Myanmar / © Christine Lins Page 112 Blue medusas / Dmitrijs Mihejevs, shutterstock Page 113 Wind Turbines in Hvinde Sande, Denmark / © World Futures Council Page 115 Infrared thermovision image showing lack of thermal insulation on House / Ivan Smuk, shutterstock Page 115 Insulation to increase Energy Efficiency / © Sara Farrar, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Page 116 Air conditioning / Antoni Halim, shutterstock Page 119 Energieausweis, Germany / Alexander Raths, shutterstock Page 119 Solar Decathlon Europe / and 120 © Rana Adib Page 120 Energy Efficient House, France / © Solar Decathlon Europe 2014 Page 121 Installing PV roof panels, California, US / © Davis Energy Group Page 122 Mangroves / Vilainecrevette, shutterstock Page 124 Blackout in New York after Sandy / © Felix Lipov, shutterstock Page 125 Marine wind farm in the coast of Copenhagen / Nanisimova, shutterstock Page 122 Solar cells on tropical island / think4photop, shutterstock PHOTO CREDITS BACK

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