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GSR 2015

235 06 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT SEAD Global Efficiency Medals for Televisions (Berkeley, CA: April 2013), http://eetd.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/lbnl-6723e.pdf. 27 W.Y. Park, A. Phadke, and N. Shah, “Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Personal Computer Monitors: Implications for Market Transformation Programs,” Energy Efficiency, January 2013. 28 McKinsey & Company, Lighting the Way: Perspectives on the Global Lighting Market, second edition (New York: 2012), http:// www.mckinsey.de/sites/mck_files/files/Lighting_the_way_ Perspectives_on_global_lighting_market_2012.pdf. 29 LEDinside, “LEDinside: China’s Residential Lighting Market Surpasses US$ 800M in 2013,” 19 August 2013, http://www. ledinside.com/node/18164. 30 DOE, “Top 8 Things You Didn’t Know About LEDs,” 4 June 2013, http://energy.gov/articles/ top-8-things-you-didn-t-know-about-leds. 31 R. Chan, ”LED Lighting Uptake to Rise Sharply in 2012 and Reach 25% by 2014, Says a New Report from Digitimes Research,” DigiTimes Research, 21 February 2012, http://www.digitimes. com/news/a20120221PR201.html?chid=2; DOE, “The History of the Light Bulb,” 22 November 2013, http://energy.gov/articles/ history-light-bulb. 32 “LEDinside: Global LED Lighting Market to Reach US $25.7 Billion in 2015,” LEDinside, 6 November 2014, http://www.ledinside. com/intelligence/2014/11/global_led_lighting_market_to_ reach_us_25_7_billion_in_2015. 33 LBNL, “Standby Power,” http://standby.lbl.gov/faq.html, viewed 14 April 2015; John Chu, “3 Easy Tips to Reduce Your Standby Power Loads,” DOE, 1 November 2012, http://energy.gov/energysaver/ articles/3-easy-tips-reduce-your-standby-power-loads. Studies across multiple countries show that standby power can account for up to 15% of household energy consumption, per Government of Australia, Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, Evaluation of Policies to Reduce Standby Power and Development of a Standard Methodology (Parkes, Australia: 2011), http:// standby.iea-4e.org/files/otherfiles/0000/0066/Standby_Power_ Evaluation_Report_-_Econoler__FINAL_V1_2_.pdf. 34 Wikipedia, “Standby Power,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Standby_power. 35 IEA, World Energy Outlook 2014 (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2014). Data are from 2012 (most recent figures). 36 DOE, Transportation Energy Data Book (Washington, DC: 2014), http://cta.ornl.gov/data/chapter2.shtml. Data are as of 2012. 37 Enerdata, op. cit. note 4; Figure 38 from idem. 38 EPA, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2014 (Washington, DC: 2014), http://www.epa.gov/oms/fetrends.htm. 39 EV energy use estimated by US Oak Ridge National Laboratory assuming that electric motor efficiency, including inverter and gear reduction losses, is 76.4–80.2% (using estimates from M. Miller et. al., “The GM ‘Voltec’ 4ET50 Multi-Mode Electric Transaxle,” SAE International Journal of Engines, vol. 4, no. 1 (2011), pp. 1102–14, http://papers.sae.org/2011-01-0887/) and adjusting downwards by 4% for parasitic losses; all cited in DOE, “All-Electric Vehicles,” http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/evtech. shtml, viewed 9 March 2015. 40 N. Gordon-Bloomfield, “It’s Official: Electric Car Sales Have Doubled Every Year for Three Years,” Transport Evolved, 16 April 2014, https://transportevolved.com/2014/04/16/ number-electric-cars-world-doubled-past-year-say-academics/. 41 Peter Mock and Zifei Yang, Driving Electrification: A Global Comparison of Fiscal Incentive Policy for Electric Vehicles (Washington, DC: International Council on Clean Transportation, May 2014), http://www.theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/ ICCT_EV-fiscal-incentives_20140506.pdf. 42 R. Cervero, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): An Efficient and Competitive Mode of Public Transport, 20th ACEA Scientific Advisory Group Report (Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley, 2013), http://www.acea.be/uploads/publications/20th_SAG_HR.pdf. Globally, BRT systems comprise 280 corridors, 4,300 kilometres of routes, 6,700 stations, and 30,000 buses. The top five countries, based on the number of cities with BRT systems in place, include Brazil (31 cities), Chile (17), the United States (14), France (13), and the United Kingdom (11). 43 IEA, op. cit. note 35. Data are from 2012 (most recent figures). 44 Enerdata, op. cit. note 4. Figure 39 from idem. 45 IEA, op. cit. note 35. See also Industrial Efficiency Technology Database (IETD) website, http://ietd.iipnetwork.org/. 46 IEA, Energy Technology Perspectives 2014: Harnessing Electricity’s Potential (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2014). 47 DOE, EERE, “ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard” (Washington, DC: 2015), http://www.energy.gov/eere/amo/ iso-50001-energy-management-standard. 48 See, for example, Maria van der Hoeven, IEA, “Energy Efficiency Market Report 2014,” presentation at Verona Energy Efficiency Summit, Verona, Italy, 8 October 2014, http://www.iea.org/ newsroomandevents/speeches/141008_EEMR_slides.pdf; IEA, “Global Energy Efficiency Market ‘An Invisible Powerhouse’ Worth at Least USD 310 Billion Per Year,” press release (Verona, Italy: 8 October 2014), http://www.iea.org/newsroomandevents/ pressreleases/2014/october/global-energy-efficiency-market-an- invisible-powerhouse-at-least-usd-310byr.html. 49 See, for example, ACEEE, op. cit. note 6. 50 Jonathan Sinton, World Bank, cited in Beth Gardiner, “Energy Efficiency May Be the Key to Saving Trillions,” New York Times, 30 November 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/01/business/ energy-environment/energy-efficiency-may-be-the-key-to-saving- trillions.html?ref=earth&_r=1. 51 European Commission, “National Energy Efficiency Action Plans,” Energy, 2015, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/ en/topics/energy-efficiency/energy-efficiency-directive/ national-energy-efficiency-action-plans. 52 China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam from World Bank, “Bringing China’s Energy Efficiency Experience to the World: Knowledge Exchange with Asian Countries,” 27 June 2014, http://www. worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2014/06/27/bringing-chinas- energy-efficiency-experience-to-the-world-knowledge-exchange- with-asian-countries; ECOWAS countries from REN21, ECOWAS Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status Report (Paris: 2014), http://www.ren21.net/Portals/0/documents/activities/ Regional%20Reports/ECOWAS_EN.pdf; others, including Indonesia, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, and the United States, from IEA, Energy Efficiency Governance (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2010) p. 53, http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/ publication/eeg.pdf. 53 David Stanway and Henning Gloystein, “China Tries to Ditch Its Coal Addition, Reduce Energy Intensity,” Reuters, 6 March 2015, http://planetark.org/wen/72901. 54 British Columbia from Ministry of Natural Gas Development and Responsible for Housing, Office of Housing and Construction Standards, “Section 9.36. Energy Efficiency,” 2014, http:// bccodes.ca/BCBC_9%2036%20EnergyEfficiency.pdf; Belgium, Lithuania, and United Kingdom from IEA, “Energy Efficiency Policy and Measures Database,” 2015, http://www. iea.org/policiesandmeasures/energyefficiency/; ECO places legal obligations on large energy suppliers to deliver energy efficiency measures to domestic energy users, mainly through the introduction of energy efficiency measures in low-income households. ECO will work together with the Green Deal, which offers loans for building energy efficiency improvements; the loans can be paid back through the energy cost savings resulting from such improvements; Government of Vietnam, “National Technical Regulation on Energy Efficiency in Buildings,” QCVN 09:2013/ BXD, 2013, www.ens.dk. 55 L. Harrington, J. Brown, and M. Caithness, Energy Standards and Labelling Programs Throughout the World in 2013, prepared for the Australian Department of Industry (Warragul, Victoria, Australia: Energy Efficient Strategies and Maia Consulting, 2014), http://www.iea-4e.org/files/otherfiles/0000/0317/Int-Label-2013- desktop-v7b.pdf. 56 IEA, op. cit. note 54; KEMCO, “The Status of Energy Efficiency Management Programs,” Energy Standards & Labeling, 2014, http://www.kemco.or.kr/new_eng/pg02/pg02100101.asp. 57 IEA, op. cit. note 54. 58 Côte d’Ivoire from Ministry of Mines, Petroleum and Energy, Strategic Development Plan 2011–2030 (Abidjan: 2011). 59 Harrington, Brown, and Caithness, op. cit. note 55. Instruments under consideration include: Bangladesh (EPS for rice cookers, and EPS and voluntary comparative labels for cooktops/hobs); Chile (mandatory labels for cooktops/hobs); Indonesia (EPS and labelling for rice cookers), and Mexico (EPS and mandatory comparative label for gas cooktops/hobs and ovens). 60 REN21, op. cit. note 52. BACK

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