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GSR 2015

244 NOTES 3. BIO-POWER DATA Given existing complexities and constraints (see Figure 6 in this report, and Sidebar 2 in GSR 2012), the GSR strives to provide the best and latest available data regarding biomass energy developments. The reporting of biomass-fired combined heat and power (CHP) systems varies among countries, which adds to the challenges experienced when assessing total heat and electricity capacities and total bioenergy outputs. Wherever possible, the bio-power data presented include capacity and generation from both electricity-only and CHP systems using solid biomass, landfill gas, biogas, and liquid biofuels. Note that the methodology for calculating shares of different biomass feedstock (solid v. gaseous) in electricity and heat changed in this GSR relative to GSR 2012, the last edition to provide such numbers. Values for GSR 2014 were calculated using a linear regression based on data from the International Energy Agency (IEA), “Statistics: World: Renewables and Waste 2008-2012,”, viewed 1 May 2015. Municipal solid waste (MSW) values were assumed to be only 50% renewable, consistent with IEA assumptions. Industrial waste was excluded from calculations. 4. HYDROPOWER DATA REVISION AND TREATMENT OF PUMPED STORAGE The GSR 2014 reported a global total of 1,000 GW at the end of 2013. That figure has been revised upwards in this edition by 18 GW, based on the best estimates of new capacity additions of 37 GW and total year-end capacity of 1,055 GW. Starting with the 2012 edition, the GSR has attempted to report hydropower generating capacity without including pure pumped storage capacity (the capacity used solely for shifting water between reservoirs for storage purposes). The distinction is made because pumped storage is not an energy source but rather a means of energy storage. It involves conversion losses and is potentially fed by all forms of electricity, renewable and non-renewable. However, some conventional hydropower facilities do have pumping capability that is not separate from, or additional to, their normal generating capability. It is the aim of the GSR to distinguish and separate only the pure (or incremental) pumped storage component. (As noted in Sidebar 3 of GSR 2013, pumped storage can play an important role as balancing power in a grid system, particularly where a large share of variable renewable resources appears in the generation mix.) This method of accounting is accepted practice by the industry. The International Hydropower Association is working to track and report pure pumped storage numbers separately. In addition, several countries report data for pumped storage separately from data for conventional hydropower and other renewables. 5. SOLAR THERMAL HEAT DATA Starting with the 2014 edition, the GSR includes all solar thermal collectors that use water as the heat-transfer medium (or heat carrier) in global capacity data and ranking of top countries. Previous GSRs focused primarily on glazed water collectors (both flat plate and evacuated tube); this edition also includes unglazed water collectors, which are used predominantly for swimming pool heating. Note that data for solar air collectors (solar thermal collectors that use air as the heat carrier) are far more uncertain, and these collector types play a minor role in the market overall. Solar thermal air collectors are included where specified. 6. OTHER Editorial content of this report closed by 17 May 2015 for technology data, and by 1 May for other content. All exchange rates in this report are as of 31 December 2014 and are calculated using the OANDA currency converter (http:// BACK

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