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GSR 2015 - Heating and Cooling Sector

33 01 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT was installed in Scotland.62 Both Denmark and Germany have a long tradition of community and local ownership of renewable energy systems.63 In Germany, 47% of the renewable energy generation was owned by individuals or investor co-operatives as of 2012, although that percentage has declined in recent years.64 Major corporations and institutions around the world made substantial commitments in 2014 to purchase renewable energy, and a group of corporations committed to achieve 100% renewable energy under the RE100 Initiative.65 Large companies also independently announced expenditures of several billion dollars to own (or purchase electricity from) renewable energy generators.66 The mining industry is investing in renewable energy systems to improve reliability and reduce energy costs, with renewable energy systems to generate power and heat installed or under development at mines in Brazil, Canada, Chile, South Africa, and Tanzania.67 Voluntary purchases of renewable energy from traditional utilities continued to increase, primarily in the power sector. Germany remains one of the world’s green power leaders, and other European countries have active green power markets as well.68 Germany’s market grew from 0.8 million residential customers in 2006 to 5.7 million in 2013, with 14.3% of all private households in the country purchasing a combined total of 19.5 TWh of renewable electricity. When commercial customers are included, green power purchases in Germany exceeded 29.6 TWh.69 Green power markets also exist in Australia, Canada, Japan, South Africa, and the United States. More than half of US electricity customers have the option to purchase green power directly from their local utility or electricity supplier. In 2013, US retail green power sales totalled 62 TWh (about 1.7% of total US electricity sales), purchased by approximately 5.4 million customers.70 ■■ HEATING AND COOLING SECTOR Energy use for heat accounted for about half of total world final energy consumption in 2014.71 Renewable energy supplied more than 25% of final energy use in the heating sector, of which over two-thirds was traditional biomass.72 Modern renewable energy supplied the remaining third—or approximately 8% of total heat. Therefore, modern renewable heating accounts for a significant share of renewable energy’s total contribution to final energy use. Even so, there exists vast additional potential for the expansion of renewable heat, and for low-temperature heating applications in particular.73 In 2014, bioenergy accounted for over 90% of the modern renewable energy portion, with solar thermal and geothermal supplying the remainder.74 About half of modern renewable heat is consumed by industry, where it meets an estimated 10% of total heat demand and is produced almost entirely from biomass.75 Growth has been relatively slow in the industry sector in recent years.76 Theotherhalfofrenewableheatconsumptionoccursinbuildings for space heating, water heating, and cooking, and is derived primarily from biomass, with solar and geothermal contributing much smaller shares. Most growth of renewable energy use for heat in the buildings sector has been driven by support policies, although there are increasing numbers of locations and circumstances in which renewable heat technologies are cost- competitive with fossil fuels.77 Renewable energy also is used for cooling, and there is growing interest in regions around the world, including Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and North America, where it offers the potential to reduce electricity loads.78 In recent years, the global solar cooling market has grown at an annual rate exceeding 40%.79 However, the number of installations worldwide remains limited.80 Figure 4. Renewable Power Capacities* in World, EU-28, BRICS, and Top Seven Countries, 2014Figure 4. Renewable Power Capacities*, EU-28, BRICS, and Top Seven Countries, 2014 255 206 China United States Germany Italy Spain Japan India Gigawatts Gigawatts CSP and Ocean power Geothermal power Bio-power Solar PV Wind power *not including hydropower World Total EU-28 BRICS 657 153 105 86 32 32 3131 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 Source: See Endnote 43 for this section. * not including hydropower (See Reference Table R2 for data including hydropower.) 32323131

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