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GSR 2015

197 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT op. cit. note 22; Jonathan Soble, “Japan’s Growth in Solar Power Falters as Utilities Balk,” New York Times, 3 March 2015, http:// solar-power-growth-falters-as-utilities-balk.html?_r=1; Chisaki Watanabe, “Kyushu Electric Says About 5,000 Solar Projects Cut Amid Reviews,” Bloomberg, 5 March 2015, com/news/articles/2015-03-05/kyushu-electric-says-about-5- 000-solar-projects-cut-amid-reviews. 25 South Korea added 909 MW for a total of 2,384 MW, and Thailand added 475 MW for a total of 1,299 MW, from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2. India added 728 MW from Bridge to India, May 2015, provided by Sinead Orlandi, Becquerel Institute, personal communication with REN21, May 2015. 26 Based on IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 6, and on Bridge to India, India Solar Compass, January 2013. 27 Policy uncertainty from Masson, op. cit. note 2, and from Bridge to India, “Is the New Found Exuberance in the Indian Solar Market Justified?” India Solar Weekly Market Update, 9 September 2014. Lack of funds and sanction delays associated with the subsidy process have been the most significant bottleneck for the rooftop solar market, from Bridge to India, “MNRE and Industry Discuss Scaling Up of Rooftop Solar Market to 40 GW by 2022,” India Solar Weekly, 23 March 2015. The most active segment has been the utility-scale market, although there have been challenges there as well. Guidelines for allocations to be auctioned in March 2015 changed frequently due to changes in land availability as well as infrastructure and funding challenges, from Bridge to India, “Is India’s 100 GW Solar Road Map Feasible?” India Solar Weekly, 19 January 2015. 28 Year-end capacity of 3,230 MW from Bridge to India, op. cit. note 25. India had 3.38 GW of grid-connected capacity at end-2014, from Andy Colthorpe, “India Hits 3.38 GW of PV Despite Missed Annual Target,” PV-Tech, 24 March 2015, news/india_hits_3.38gw_of_pv_despite_missed_annual_target; India had 2.93 GW cumulative at the end of 2014, from EPIA, op. cit. note 2. New policies included one for solar parks, and ramping up on the NSM Phase II, and institutions included the World Bank, US-Export-Import Bank, and KfW (Germany), all from Bridge to India, “How Real is India’s Solar Target for 100 GW by 2022?” India Solar Weekly, 24 November 2014. By early 2015, 140 developers had made commitments to develop significant capacities of solar power, per Bridge to India, “166 GW of Solar Investment Interest in India in the Coming Years,” India Solar Weekly, 9 February 2015; RE-Invest India 2015 (programme of the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)), “Green Energy Commitment,” viewed 9 February 2015, Green_Energy_Commitments.pdf. 29 Based on data from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2; 15.2 GW from EPIA, op. cit. note 2. 30 The United States added 6.2 GW in 2014, from GTM Research and U.S. Solar Industries Association (SEIA), U.S. Solar Market Insight Report: 2014 Year in Review, Executive Summary, 2015, p. 3, 31 Canada added 500 MW for a total of 1,710 MW, from Canadian Solar Industries Association (CanSIA), provided in IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2. Canada’s year-end capacity was 1.77 GW from EPIA, op. cit. note 2. Note that Canada officially reports data in alternating current (AC); these sources converted data to direct current (DC) for consistency across countries. 32 GTM Research and SEIA, op. cit. note 30, pp. 4–5. All US capacity data are direct current (DC). 33 Ibid. Note that module prices remained relatively flat, but balance of system (BOS) “prices fell precipitously, leading to average 10% annual decline in system prices, depending on market segment,” from idem. 34 Three market segments from SEIA, “U.S. Installs 6.2 GW of Solar PV in 2014, Up 30% Over 2013,” press release (Boston and Washington, DC: 10 March 2015), us-installs-62-gw-solar-pv-2014-30-over-2013. Commercial sector declined, from GTM Research and SEIA, op. cit. note 30, p. 5. 35 An estimated 3,934 MW of utility PV was added in 2014, up 38% from 2013, from SEIA, op. cit. note 34; drivers from GTM Research and SEIA, op. cit. note 30, p. 10. 36 GTM Research and SEIA, op. cit. note 30, pp. 6, 10. Very large projects came on line in 2014, but general anxiety over upcoming changes to incentives (the Investment Tax Credit expires at end-2016) is affecting development of large projects, from Paula Mints, “Despite Energy, 2014 Is Another Growth Year for Solar PV,” Renewable Energy World, 4 November 2014, http:// despite-everything-2014-is-another-growth-year-for-solar-pv. 37 Figure of 1.2 GW from SEIA, op. cit. note 34. More than 50% from GTM Research and SEIA, op. cit. note 30, p. 9. Falling prices and financing options from Renewable Energy World Editors, “Analyst: US Residential Demand Could Approach 1 GW Annually,” Renewable Energy World, 15 October 2014, http:// analyst-us-residential-demand-could-approach-1-gw-annually. 38 A nationwide solar purchase programme sponsored by several large employers (3M, Cisco, Kimberley-Clark, National Geographic Society, WWF) enables employees to install solar PV systems on their homes for about one-third less than the national average; Internet marketer Geostellar works with local utilities and installers to aggregate parts, from Heather Hansman, “The Newest Benefits Perk: Cheap Solar Power for Your Home,” Grist, 26 November 2014, cheap-solar-power-for-your-home/. In Massachusetts there is a bulk purchase programme called Mass Solar Connect for Universities and nonprofits with at least 5,000 associates, and Connecticut is planning a similar program for universities, from “Massachusetts Lights the Way on Solar Energy Policy,” Boston Globe, 2 November 2014, editorials/2014/11/02/massachusetts-lights-way-solar-energy- policy/HGSFF66Bqjrb70SgZ4efWN/story.html. 39 California added 3,549 MW and North Carolina added 397 MW, from GTM Research and SEIA, op. cit. note 30, pp. 6–8. About 10% of Hawaii’s residential customers have solar PV systems on their roofs, compared with about 0.5% nationally. National figure from US Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), and all data cited in Erica Gies, “Will New Obstacles Dim Hawaii’s Solar Power Surge?” Yale Environment360, 16 February 2015, will_new_obstacles_dim_hawaiis_solar_power_surge/2847/. 40 IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2; Masson, op. cit. note 2; Zachary Shahan, “Europe Is Still Leading the Solar Charge, Relatively Speaking,”, 13 October 2014, innovators-blog/detail/europe-is-still-leading-the-solar-charge- relatively-speaking. All Europe, including Turkey, added about 88.5 GW from EPIA, op. cit. note 2. In 2014, more than 31 GW of new capacity was installed outside of Europe, based on data from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2, and from Masson, op. cit. note 2; an estimated 33 GW was installed outside of Europe in 2014 (but the number could have been a bit higher) from Manoël Rekinger, EPIA, personal communication with REN21, 23 April 2015, and from EPIA, op. cit. note 2. This compares with 10 GW in 2010, from EPIA, op. cit. note 4, p. 17. 41 Figure of 6.3 GW added in EU (and 6.8 GW in all of Europe) from Masson, op. cit. note 2; Europe added 7 GW from EPIA, op. cit. note 2; 22 GW in 2011 based on 22.4 GW from EPIA, Market Report 2013 (Brussels: March 2014), p. 4, tx_epiapublications/Market_Report_2013_02.pdf, and on 22 GW from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 6. 42 Gaëtan Masson, “Where Is the European PV Market Going?” Becquerel Institute, 22 January 2015, http://becquerelinstitute. org/2014-pv-european-back-2009-levels/. 43 Rekinger, op. cit. note 40. 44 Italy and Spain from Masson, op. cit. note 3; Italy added 386 MW for a total of 18,460 MW, from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2. Despite its relatively weak market, Italy’s production increased from 21,228 GWh in 2013 to 23,229 GW in 2014, from TSO Terna SpA, cited in “Italy Installed Up to 1.38 GW of PV Capacity in 2014,” Photon, 4 February 2015, photon_news_detail_en.photon?id=90982. Germany based on data from Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi), Marktanalyse Photovoltaik-Dachlagen Berlin: BMWi, 2015, http:// bmwi_de/marktanalysen-photovoltaik-photovoltaik.pdf; and BMWi, Entwicklung der Erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland im Jahr 2014 (Berlin: 2015) data from Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien-Statistik (AGEE-Stat), as of February 2015, http:// entwicklung_der_erneuerbaren_energien_in_deutschland_im_ jahr_2014.pdf; Germany added 1.9 GW in 2014, down from 3.3 GW in 2013, from Bundesverband Solar Wirtschaft e.V. (BSW- Solar), “Statistische Zahlen der deutschen Solarstrombranche (Photovoltaik),” March 2015, http://www.solarwirtschaft. de/fileadmin/media/pdf/2015_3_BSW_Solar_Faktenblatt_ Photovoltaik.pdf. 45 Belgium added 65 MW for a total of 3,074 MW; Bulgaria (1.6 MW; 1,022 MW); Czech Republic (1.7 MW; 2,134 MW), Greece (16 MW; 2,959 MW); and Spain (25.3 MW; 5,361.5 MW), from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2. Spain officially reports data in alternating current (AC); these sources have converted them to direct current (DC) for consistency across countries. Spain BACK

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