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GSR 2015

183 01 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT Institute for Contemporary German Studies, 2012), http://www. aicgs.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/The-German-Energy- Transition-Keil-FINAL2.pdf. 58 IEA-RETD, RE- PROSUMERS: Residential Prosumers – Drivers and Policy Options (Paris: September 2014), http://iea-retd.org/ archives/publications/re-prosumers. 59 French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy, Report on Consumption and the Self-Production of Renewable Electricity (Paris: December 2014), http://www.developpement- durable.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Rapport_autoconsommation. pdf; European Union from Hans ten Berge, “EURELECTRIC presentation,” Workshop in Preparation of Commission Guidance on Renewable Energy Self-Consumption Schemes, 27 March 2015; David Jacobs, IET Consulting, personal communication with REN21, 22 May 2015. 60 Diego Masera and Toby Couture, Industrial Prosumers of Renewable Energy: Contribution to Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development (Vienna: UNIDO, November 2014), http:// www.unido.org/fileadmin/media/documents/pdf/Energy_ Environment/PROSUMERS_Energy.pdf. 61 The community feed-in tariff (COMFIT) was subsequently put “on pause” in January 2015, per Nova Scotia Department of Energy “Feed-in Tariffs Are Catching on Worldwide,” 2 March 2015, http:// energy.novascotia.ca/renewables/programs-and-projects/comfit. 62 See Ocean Energy text in Market and Industry Trends section. 63 Boris Gotchev, “Civic Participation in the Energiewende: What Germany Can Learn from Denmark,” EnergyTransition. de, 2 March 2015, http://energytransition.de/2015/03/ danish-civic-participation-energiewende-lessons-for-germany/. 64 Share in 2012 from “Renewable Energy in the Hands of the People,” Renewables-in-germany.de, April 2013, http://www. unendlich-viel-energie.de/media/image/1136.AEE_Erneuerbare_ Energien_in_Bu%E2%95%A0%C3%AArgerhand_april13_en-01. jpg; decline from Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes, personal communication with REN21, 30 April 2015. 65 RE100 Initiative, “Corporate Partners List,” http://there100.org/ about, viewed 12 March 2015. 66 For example, Apple announced investments of USD 2 billion to build 100% renewable energy data centres in Denmark and Ireland, and USD 848 million for a solar project in California, per Jon Russell and Ingrid Lunden, “Apple to Invest $2B Building Green Data Center in Ireland and Denmark,” TechCrunch, 23 February 2015, http://techcrunch.com/2015/02/23/apple-2b-on- two-european-data-centers-running-100-renewal-power/; Serena Renner, “Apple Invests $850 Million in Massive California Flats Solar Project,” Inhabitat, 11 February 2015, http://inhabitat.com/ apple-sinks-850-million-into-california-flats-solar-project/; Google announced plans for a $157 million investment in a solar project in Utah; Amazon entered into a PPA for a 150 MW wind energy project to power a data centre, per Richard A. Kessler, “Patterns Energy Signs wind PPA with Amazon Subsidiary,” Recharge News, 20 February 2015, http://www.rechargenews.com/wind/1389104/ pattern-energy-signs-wind-ppa-with-amazon-subsidiary; Mars signed a PPA with a 200 MW wind farm, per Nicolas Brown, “Mars Agrees to Construct 200 MW Wind Farm,” Clean Technica, 15 May 2015, “http://cleantechnica.com/2014/05/15/mars-agrees- construct-200-mw-wind-farm/; IKEA now owns wind farms in nine countries and has 38 MW of PV systems installed on 90% of its buildings in the United States, per Sandy Dechertt, “IKEA Wind Farm to Cover 165% of IKEA’s US Electricity Consumption,” Clean Technica, 16 April 2014, http://cleantechnica.com/2014/04/16/ ikea-wind-farm-us-electricity-consumption/. 67 Jan Dodd, “Remote Mines Add Wind,” Wind Power Monthly, 30 January 2015, http://www.windpowermonthly.com/ article/1330527/remote-mines-add-wind; Andrew Topf, “Unlikely Bedfellows: Mines That Run on Solar or Wind Power,” OilPrice. com, 18 August 2014, http://www.nasdaq.com/article/unlikely- bedfellows-mines-that-run-on-solar-or-wind-power-cm381409; Brian Christopher Green, “Opportunities: Renewable Energy Projects Near Mines – Chile, Brazil, Canada, Africa, Deal Structures,” Chadbourne, February 2014, http://www.chadbourne. com/renewable_energy_near_mines_projectfinance; “Renewable Energy and Chilean Mines: Market Overview,” Renewable Energy World, 15 January 2015, http://www. renewableenergyworld.com/articles/2015/01/renewable-energy- and-chilean-mines-a-market-overview.html. 68 These include Austria, Belgium (Flanders), Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, per Joß Bracker, Öko-Institute e.V., personal communication with REN21, 11 May 2015. 69 Bracker, op. cit. note 68. Other major European green power markets include Austria, Belgium (Flanders), Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, although the market shares in these countries still remain below German levels. 70 Jenny Heeter, NREL, personal communication with REN21, March 2015. 71 Estimate based on data for 2013, from IEA, World Energy Outlook 2014, op. cit. note 9, p. 207. 72 IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 9. 73 Figure of 8% from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 9. Werner Weiss, “How to Boost Renewables Heating and Cooling,” conference presentation, REN21 Renewables Academy, Bonn, Germany, 10 November 2015, http://www.ren21.net/REN21Activities/ RenewablesAcademy/BoostingRenewables.aspx. 74 IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 9. 75 Ibid.; 10% from IEA, Heating Without Global Warming: Market Developments and Policy Considerations for Renewable Heat (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2014), https://www.iea.org/ publications/freepublications/publication/FeaturedInsight_ HeatingWithoutGlobalWarming_FINAL.pdf. An estimate 99% of renewable heat in the industrial sector is bioenergy-based, from idem. 76 IEA, Energy Technology Perspectives 2015 (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2015), p. 112. 77 Ibid.; IEA, Heating Without Global Warming, op. cit. note 75. 78 Alexandra Sombsthay, European Commission, “How to Boost Renewables Heating and Cooling,” conference presentation, REN21 Renewables Academy, Bonn, Germany, 10 November 2015, http://www.ren21.net/REN21Activities/ RenewablesAcademy/BoostingRenewables.aspx; IEA, Technology Roadmap, Solar Heating and Cooling (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2012), http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/ Solar_Heating_Cooling_Roadmap_2012_WEB.pdf; IEA Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (IEA-ETSAP) and IRENA, 2015 Solar Heating and Cooling for Residential Applications Technology Brief (Abu Dhabi: 2014), p. 13, http://www.irena.org/ DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_ETSAP_Tech_Brief_ R12_Solar_Thermal_Residential_2015.pdf. 79 Uli Jakob, Green Chiller Verband für Sorptionskälte e.V., personal communication with REN21, 22 April 2015; Uli Jakob, “Solar Air-Conditioning in Europe,” presentation for Chinese Solar Cooling Conference, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, 27 March 2015, slides 16, 21. 80 IEA-ETSAP and IRENA, op. cit. note 78, p. 18; IEA, Heating Without Global Warming, op. cit. note 75. Nearly 1,200 systems of all technology types and sizes were installed by 2014, from Jakob, op. cit. note 79, both references. 81 Figure of 2.6% from IEA, Electricity Information, 2015 preliminary edition (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2014); drivers from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 9. 82 IEA, Heating Without Global Warming, op. cit. note 75. 83 IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report, op. cit. note 9. 84 Ibid. 85 Ibid. 86 Ibid. 87 See relevant texts in Market and Industry Trends section. 88 Europe leads and share from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 9; Iceland, Norway, and Sweden from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013 (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2013), pp. 217–18. 89 Combi-systems from Bundesindustrieverband Deutschland Haus-, Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (BDH) and Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft (BSW), “Solarkollektorabsatz 2013 rückläufig – Solar- und Heizungsbranche fordern: Wärmewende jetzt einläuten,” press release (Berlin and Cologne: 17 February 2014), http://www.solarwirtschaft.de/fileadmin/media/pdf/pm_ kollektorabsatz2013.pdf; Franz Mauthner and Werner Weiss, Solar Heat Worldwide: Markets and Contribution to the Energy Supply 2012 (Gleisdorf, Austria: IEA-SHC, May 2014). District heat from Solar District Heating (SDH), Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union, “Solar District Heating,” http://www. BACK

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