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GSR 2015

200 ENDNOTES 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS – SOLAR PV a 40 MW plant was also completed in 2014, from “Scatec Solar Completes 40MW Project in South Africa,” PV News, August 2014, p. 7. 73 This project involves building an eventual 530 MW of solar PV capacity next to site of the 1.28 GW Longyangxia Hydropower station; the first phase, 320 MW, started exporting electricity in December 2013; China Power Investment Corporation announced a goal of 850 MW of PV at this site, from “World's Largest Solar- Hydro Project Connects 160 MW PV Power to Grid,” ReneSola, 23 January 2015, http://www.renesola.com/news/366.htm. 74 Wiki-Solar, “Utility-Scale Solar Breaks All Records in 2014 to Reach 36 GW,” 5 March 2015, http://wiki-solar.org/library/ public/150305_Utility-solar_2014_figures_set%20multiple_ records.pdf. Capacity was up an estimated 14.2 GW, from idem. 75 “Australia Inaugurates Its Largest Solar Plant,” from PV News, October 2014, p. 7; France was building Europe’s largest plant (300 MW) to be grid-connected by October 2015, from Michel Rose, “Solar Latecomer France Builds Europe’s Largest Plant,” Reuters, 6 November 2014, http://planetark.org/wen/72430; in Japan the nation’s largest (as of mid-2014) plant, of 82 MW, began commercial operation in Oita City, from “Largest PV Plant in Japan Comes On-Line,” PV News, June 2014, p. 8; in Pakistan, the first 100 MW of the planned 1-GW Quaid-e-azam Solar Park was under construction, from James Ayre, “100 MW Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park in Pakistan Moving Along,” Clean Technica, 7 September 2014, http://investors.jasolar.com/phoenix. zhtml?c=208005&p=RssLanding&cat=news&id=1995688; and from “JA Solar Supplies 100 MW of PV Modules to Large- scale Solar PV Farm in Pakistan,” Solar Server, 8 December 2014, http://www.solarserver.com/solar-magazine/solar-news/ current/2014/kw50/ja-solar-supplies-100-mw-of-pv-modules- to-large-scale-solar-pv-farm-in-pakistan.html; the Philippines’ first utility-scale solar PV project (13 MW) was completed, from “Conergy Completes the Philippines’ First Utility PV Project,” PV News, July 2014, p. 8; and Russia’s largest plant to date (5 MW) was completed in the Altai Republic in the south of Siberia, from “Hevel Solar Completes Russia’s Largest PV System,” both in PV News, October 2014, p. 7. Others included, but were not limited to: India’s 30 MW plant in Madhya Pradesh, from “EDF Energies Nouvelles Completes First Project in India,” PV News, May 2014, p. 7; India’s plans for a 750 MW plant to be completed in August 2016, from K Jayalakshmi, “India: World’s Largest Solar Plant That Will Generate 750 MW of Power Commissioned,” International Business Times, 16 February 2015, http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/ india-worlds-largest-solar-plant-that-will-generate-750-mw-power- commissioned-1488072; China’s 100 MW plant in Xiangshui that was built atop a 2 million m2 fish pond, from “JinkoSolar Connects 100MW Solar PV Project in China,” PV News, October 2014, p. 7; and from JinkoSolar, “JinkoSolar Connects 100 MW Solar PV Project in Xiangshui, Jiangsu Province to the Grid,” press release (Shanghai: 10 September 2014), http://www.jinkosolar.com/ press_detail_983.html. 76 See for example, Tracy Rucinski and Byron Kaye, “Taxes, Fees: The Worldwide Battle Between Utilities and Solar,” Reuters, 28 September 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/09/28/ us-solar-battlelines-insight-idUSKCN0HN07P20140928. In 2014, the solar PV industry fought battles in 40 US states against monopoly utility attacks on rooftop solar, per Lynn Jurich, Sunrun, quoted in idem. In many states, battles are shifting from legislatures, where efforts to raise prices for solar customers have failed, to public utility commissions, where industry backers have been more successful in pushing for fee hikes, from Joby Warrick, “Utilities Wage Campaign Against Rooftop Solar,” Washington Post, 7 March 2015, http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/ health-science/utilities-sensing-threat-put-squeeze-on-booming- solar-roof-industry/2015/03/07/2d916f88-c1c9-11e4-ad5c- 3b8ce89f1b89_story.html. More than 20 ongoing proceedings could affect the value of solar for the US residential market, through revisions to net metering or electricity rate structures, from GTM Research and SEIA, op. cit. note 30, p. 5. Concerns exist (particularly in California) about future financing sources for grid infrastructure upgrades if traditional utility metering revenue is reduced due to behind-the-meter installations, from David Renné, International Solar Energy Society, personal communication with REN21, 13 April 2015. Australia also from IEA-PVPS, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications 2014 (Brussels: October 2014), p. 64, available at http://iea-pvps.org/index.php?id=32. Japan from Chisaki Watanabe, “Solar’s $30 Billion Splurge Proves Too Much for Japan,” Bloomberg, 9 October 2014, http://www.bloomberg. com/news/2014-10-09/japan-solar-boom-fizzling-as-utilities-limit- grid-access.html; from Andy Colthorpe, “Warning of ‘Dangerous’ Public Backlash Against Solar in Japan,” PV-Tech, 23 July 2014, http://www.pv-tech.org/news/japans_price_driven_backlash_ against_solar_could_prove_extremely_dangerous; and from “4 Power Companies Resume Purchase of Solar Power with More Control,” Mainichi Japan, 28 January 2015, http://mainichi.jp/ english/english/newsselect/news/20150128p2a00m0na004000c. html. Europe also from Masson, op. cit. note 2, and from Rekinger, op. cit. note 40. 77 Developing and operating from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 76, p. 64. For example, some utilities—as in Ontario, Canada—were offering installation and maintenance programmes for customers, from idem. A recent survey by SEPA found that 87% of US community solar projects were initiated by utilities, from Julia Hamm, SEPA, quoted in “The Big Question: Where Do You See Renewable Energy Growth Potential in 2015?” Renewable Energy World, 9 March 2015, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/ article/2015/03/the-big-question-where-do-you-see-renewable- energy-growth-potential-in-2015. 78 “Australian Community Solar Project Begins Operation,” PV News, January 2013, p. 11; Japan from Hironao Matsubara, ISEP, Tokyo, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2014, and Junko Movellan, “Solar Projects Supporting Communities,” Renewable Energy World, 19 May 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld. com/rea/news/article/2014/05/fukushima-japan-rebuilding- communities-with-solar-commits-to-a-100-percent-renewable- energy-by-2040; Poland from Anna Leidreiter, World Future Council, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2015; United Kingdom from Andrew Williams, “Sharing Renewable Energy: Solar Power Co-operatives in the UK,” Renewable Energy World, 8 August 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/ rea/news/article/2013/08/sharing-renewable-energy-solar-power- co-operatives-in-the-uk; Scotland from Leidreiter, op. cit. this note; Thailand from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 6, p. 25. 79 See, for example, Steve Karnowski, “New Concept in Solar Energy Poised to Catch on Across US,” ABC News, 7 March 2015, http:// abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/concept-solar-energy-poised- catch-us-29463892; Herman K. Trabish, “Why Community Solar Is Exploding in Minnesota,” Utility Dive, 5 February 2015, http://www.utilitydive.com/news/why-community-solar-is- exploding-in-minnesota/360241/; Herman K. Trabish, “HECO and Hawaii Lawmakers Plan Push for Community Solar Gardens,” Utility Dive, 2 October 2014, http://www.utilitydive.com/news/ heco-and-hawaii-lawmakers-plan-push-for-community-solar- gardens/316547/; Jeff St. John, “Community Solar Developers Take Baby Steps into Potentially Huge Market,” Greentech Media, 11 July 2014, http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/ read/community-solar-a-big-idea-with-big-barriers; Emily Hois, “Fort Collins Utilities Taps Clean Energy Collective for Community-Owned Solar,” Easy Clean Energy, 14 May 2014, http://easycleanenergy.com/cecblog/index.php/fort-collins- utilities-taps-clean-energy-collective-for-community-owned- solar/; Chris Meehan, “Clean Energy Collective Digs into Solar Gardens in Massachusetts,” Renewable Energy World, 16 January 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/blog/ post/2014/01/clean-energy-collective-digs-into-solar-gardens-in- massachusetts. Actively promote from Steve Karnowski, op. cit. this note; from Bryan Lewis, “Solar Gardens: Clean Energy Within Reach of Low-Income Families,” Climate Progress, 28 August 2013, http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2013/08/28/2546291/ community-solar-income/; and from David Shaffer, “First Community Solar Projects Getting Launched,” Star Tribune, 19 July 2013, http://www.startribune.com/business/216093571. html. There is also a rise in co-operatives in the US solar PV arena. See, for example, Laurie Guevara-Stone, “The Rise of Solar Co-ops,” RMI Outlet, 22 April 2014, http://blog.rmi.org/ blog_2014_04_22_the_rise_of_solar_coops. 80 Examples exist in Asia and include India’s Barefoot College and its solutions for rural access to electricity, from Emilio Soberón, WWF Mexico, personal communication with REN21, 14 April 2015. 81 Simon P. Philipps et al., Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology (Freiburg, Germany and Golden, CO: Fraunhofer ISE and U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), January 2015), p. 6, http://www.ise.fraunhofer.de/en/publications/ veroeffentlichungen-pdf-dateien-en/studien-und-konzeptpapiere/ current-status-of-concentrator-photovoltaic-cpv-technology. pdf. CPV entered the marketplace only in the mid-2000s, with the first plant exceeding 1 MW installed in Spain during 2006. The technology is still young and a small player, and there remains a lack of reliable data on all fronts, from idem, pp. 7, 10. 82 Australia, China, Italy, South Africa, and United States from Philipps et al., op. cit. note 81, p. 10; France, Mexico, Portugal, and Spain from CPV Consortium, “Listing Projects,” http:// cpvconsortium.org/projects, viewed 24 March 2015; Saudi Arabia BACK

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