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GSR 2015

75 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT TABLE 2. STATUS OF RENEWABLE TECHNOLOGIES: CHARACTERISTICS AND COSTS TECHNOLOGY TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS CAPITAL COSTS USD / kW TYPICAL ENERGY COSTS LCOE – US cents / kWh1 POWER GENERATION Bio-power from solid biomass (including co-firing and organic MSW) Plant size: 0.5–200 MW Conversion efficiency: 25–35% Capacity factor: 25–95% 800–4,500 (Global) Co-fire: 200–800 (Global) Up to 1,000 (China and India) 3–22 (Global) Co-fire: 4–12 (Global) 14 (Europe) 5–6 (China) Bio-power from gasification Plant size: 0.03–40 MW Conversion efficiency: 30–40% Capacity factor: 40–80% 2,050–5,500 (Global) 6–24 (Global) Bio-power from anaerobic digestion Plant size: 0.075–20 MW Conversion efficiency: 25–40% Capacity factor: 50–90% Biogas: 500–6,500 Landfill gas: 1,900–2,200 Biogas: 6–19 Landfill gas: 4–6.5 Geothermal power Plant size: 1–100 MW Capacity factor: 60–90% Condensing flash: 1,900–3800 Binary: 2,250–5,500 Condensing flash: 4–14 Binary: 7–24 Hydropower: Grid-based Plant size: 1 MW to multi-GW Plant type: reservoir, run-of-river Capacity factor: 20–80% Projects ≥20 MW: 750–2,500 Projects ≤20 MW: 750–4,000 Projects >20 MW: 2–8 Projects <20 MW: 3–23 Ocean power: Tidal range Plant size: <1 to >250 MW Capacity factor: 23–29% 5,290–5,870 (Global) 21–28 (Global) 35–42 (Europe) Solar PV: Rooftop Peak capacity: 3–5 kW (residential); 100 kW (commercial); 500 kW (industrial) Capacity factor: 10–25% (fixed tilt) Residential costs: 2,200 (Germany); 3,500–7,000 (United States); 4,260 (Japan); 2,150 (China); 3,380 (Australia); 2,400–3,000 (Italy) Commercial costs: 3,800 (United States); 2,900–3,800 (Japan) 21–44 (OECD) 28–55 (non-OECD) 16–38 (Europe) Solar PV: Ground-mounted utility-scale Peak capacity: >1–250+ MW Capacity factor: 10–25% (fixed tilt) 1,200–3,000 (Global) Weighted capital costs (2014): 1,670 (China), 2,710 (Japan) 1,495 (Germany) 2,080 (United Kingdom) 2,218 (United States) Concentrating PV (CPV): 1,480–2,330 (10 MW) 10–38 (OECD) 7–40 (non-OECD) 14–34 (Europe) 11 (China) 25 (Japan) 11 (United States) CPV: 10–15 Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) Types: parabolic trough, tower, dish Plant size: 50–250 MW (trough) 20–250 MW (tower) 10–100 MW (Fresnel) Capacity factor: 20–35% (no storage) 35–80% (with storage) Trough, no storage: 5,000–7,000 (OECD) 3,100–4,050 (non-OECD) Trough, 6 hours storage: 6,000–8,000 Tower: 6,000 (United States, without storage); 9,000 (United States, with storage) Trough and Fresnel: 19–38 (no storage); 17–37 (6 hours storage Tower: 12.5–16.4 (United States; high end of range is with storage) Wind: Onshore Turbine size: 1.5–3.5 MW Capacity factor: 20–50% 925–1,470 (India) 660–1,290 (China) 2,300–10,000 (United States) 5,873 (United Kingdom) 4–16 (Global) 6–7 (Asia, Eurasia, North America) 5–10 (Central and South America) Wind: Onshore small-scale Turbine size: up to 100 kW Average: 0.85 kW (global) 0.5 kW (China) 1.4 kW (United States) 4.7 kW (United Kingdom) 2,300–10,000 (United States) 1,900 (China) 5,870 (United Kingdom) 15–20 (United States) Wind: Offshore Turbine size: 1.5–7.5 MW Capacity factor: 35–45% 4,500–5,500 (Global) 2,250–6,250 (OECD) 15–23 (Global)

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