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GSR 2015

108 05 DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR ENERGY ACCESS projects to improve access for rural communities.55 Myanmar, which has a strong commitment to achieve universal access to electricity, continued with its plans to complete a National Electrification Plan (NEP) by 2015.56 In addition, Sri Lanka created its Sunithyalokaya programme, which aims to provide access to electricity for 1,200 off-grid households through DRE units and targets 100% of remaining off-grid households.57 Numerous countries have electrification targets, with Barbados, China, Ghana, South Africa, South Sudan, and Sri Lanka all aiming for 100% of their citizens to have electricity access within the next one to six years (depending on the country).58 The Philippines Expanded Rural Electrification Program aims to achieve 90% household electrification by 2017; as of April 2014, it had reached 99.98% of potential barangays (villages).59 Many programmes focus on the rollout of specific technologies, such as solar home systems. Costa Rica continued its initiative to deploy stand-alone solar PV installations in rural areas. In early 2014, a tender was published that called for the provision of more than 800 solar PV systems for households.60 Ghana continued with its Solar Lantern Distribution Programme, launched in 2013, which aims to provide 200,000 lanterns over five years to replace kerosene use in rural off-grid communities. The programme targets communities on islands or without road access and aims to establish a local assembly plant and to build awareness.61 There were also new initiatives related to clean renewable cooking during 2014. In July, Ecuador started executing a plan to introduce 3 million solar induction cooktops by 2016.62 Guatemala established a Cluster of Improved Cookstoves and Clean Fuels, representing individuals and organisations who work in these two areas, with the aim of providing technical, social, and economic solutions to the problems of household air pollution and the excessive use of firewood, as well as targeting fuel efficiency improvements, the appropriation of technology, and social responsibility.63 Bangladesh announced a Country Action Plan for Clean Cookstoves with a target to disseminate 30 million units and make all kitchens smoke-free by 2030.64 Also in 2014, India launched the Unnat Chulha Abhiyan Programme to develop and deploy 2.75 million clean stoves by 2017.65 India continued its National Biogas and Manure Management Programme and plans to install 110,000 biogas plants from 2014 to 2019.66 Some African countries, including Nigeria and Senegal, also have programmes to distribute millions of clean cookstoves.67 Fiscal incentives—such as loans, grants, and tax reductions— have been used successfully by many countries in their off-grid renewable electricity programmes to address the barrier of high upfront costs. While approaches vary by country, the most common practice is to provide subsidies to encourage operators to adopt renewable energy technologies when developing electrification schemes in remote communities.68 Beyond the level of individual nation states, dozens of international actors—including at least 30 programmes and 20 global networks—were involved in deploying DRE in 2014. (R See Reference Tables R23 and R24.) One of the most visible international efforts is Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL), launched by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in 2012 and co-led by the president of the World Bank.69 The SE4ALL initiative has several aims, one of which is to help achieve universal access to modern energy services by 2030. The SE4ALL initiative continued to build momentum in 2014, and the UN Decade of Sustainable Energy for All 2014–2024 was launched at the First Annual Sustainable Energy for All Forum in June.70 The SE4ALL initiative works at the country level to help governments prepare their action agendas, and is spearheading work in several high-impact opportunity areas—including clean energy mini-grids and energy for women and children’s health— where there is potential to provide scale and impact.71 Under the SE4ALL initiative, the Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE) and Partners for Euro-African Green Energy (PANGEA) announced a partnership in late 2014 to support the development of biomass- based DRE systems to advance energy access.72 As the renewable energy hub in the SE4ALL process, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) helps countries establish political and regulatory frameworks for deployment of DRE, providing a platform to strengthen investor confidence in developing countries, and also helps support regular exchange among key stakeholders in the DRE field.73 Other efforts have been driven primarily by national governments that provide bilateral or multilateral aid. One of the largest programmes is Power Africa, a US initiative that addresses access to electricity in sub-Saharan Africa. As of August 2014, the United States had leveraged more than USD 26 billion in financial support and loan guarantees, and Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom pledged an additional combined USD 12 billion.74 Energising Development (EnDev), an initiative of Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, aims to provide sustainable access to modern energy services to at least 15 million people by the end of 2018. By year-end 2014, EnDev had helped 12.9 million people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.75 Some programmes involve working with governments to establish and implement policy and regulatory frameworks that support the sustainable deployment of DRE. Germany’s GIZ, for example, supports such programmes in several countries including India, Kenya, Madagascar, and Pakistan.76 Alongside traditional actors such as governments and international organisations, public-private partnerships and nongovernmental organisations are also promoting DRE. For instance, the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves mobilises high-level national and private donor commitments to promote the adoption of clean cookstoves and fuels in 100 million households by 2020. In 2014, it ended its first phase (2010– 2014) and had engaged 30 countries in developing International Organization for Standardization (ISO) requirements for cookstoves. The second phase (2015–2017) focuses on driving investment, furthering innovation, and scaling up the project.77 The Global Lighting and Energy Access Partnership (Global LEAP) works to catalyse the development of commercial markets for energy access solutions. In 2014, Global LEAP continued its support of the Lighting Africa programme, which has enabled the sale of 2.7 million quality-assured off-grid lighting systems in Africa, benefitting over 7 million people in 29 countries.78

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