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GSR 2015

189 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT per Amanda Zhang Miao, op. cit. note 26. 70 Sakchai Preechajarn and Ponnarong Prasertsri, Biofuels Annual 2014 - Thailand (Washington, DC: USDA FAS, June 2014), http:// Annual_Bangkok_Thailand_6-27-2014.pdf. 71 F.O. Licht, op. cit. note 10. 72 Ibid. 73 Ibid. 74 APAC Biofuel Consultants, personal communication with REN21, February 2015. 75 Sapp, op. cit. note 14. 76 F.O. Licht, op. cit. note 10. 77 Ibid. 78 Ibid. 79 F.O. Licht, op. cit. note 10; F.O. Licht, “U.S. Biodiesel Slumps in 2014 Amid Policy Uncertainty,” press release (Washington, DC: 15 January 2015), display/2015/01/15/u.s.-biodiesel-slumps-in-2014-amid-policy- uncertainty. 80 F.O. Licht, op. cit. note 10. 81 Ministerio de Minas e Energia, “Boletim Mensal de Combustiveis Renovaveis,” 2015, petroleo-gas-natural-e-combustiveis-renovaveis/publicacoes/ boletim-mensal-de-combustiveis-renovaveis/567. 82 Voegele, op. cit. note 12. 83 Heinz Kopetz and Bharadwaj Kummamuru, World Bioenergy Association, personal communications with REN21, 8 April 2015; Carlo Hamelinck, Ecofys, personal communication with REN21, 9 April 2015; Gonzalo Bravo, Fundación Bariloche, Argentina, personal communication with REN21, April 2015. 84 F.O. Licht, op. cit. note 10. 85 Ibid. 86 Kopetz and Kummamuru, op. cit. note 84; F.O. Licht, op. cit. note 10. 87 Erin Voegele, “Report Highlights China’s Growth in Biodiesel, Ethanol Production,” Biodiesel Magazine, 27 January 2015, http:// chinas-growth-in-biodiesel-ethanol-production; Anderson- Sprecher and Junyang, op. cit. note 70. 88 Amanda Zhang Miao, op. cit. note 26. 89 APAC Biofuel Consultants, op. cit. note 75. 90 F.O. Licht, op. cit. note 10. 91 Ibid. 92 Prządka, op. cit. note 53. 93 Germany from German Ministry for Economics and Energy (BMWi), ‘Renewable Energy in 2014,” February 2015, http://,did=693574.html. Other European countries extrapolated from data in Eur’Observer, Biofuels Barometer 2014 (Paris: 2014), http://www.energies- 94 Italy from Natural and Bio Gas Vehicle Association, statistics,, viewed March 2015; Sweden from Weisman, op. cit. note 27. 95 IEA Bioenergy Task 37, op. cit. note 29. 96 In late 2013, the U.S. EPA proposed lowering the mandated blending requirements in the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) for 2014, which sparked significant controversy. Although the final 2014 RFS was expected by the end of 2014, finalisation of the policy was delayed until 2015, introducing uncertainty for US industry over the course of the year. European policies target cereals and other starch-rich crops, sugars, and oil crops. In early 2015, the position of the EU (no 2/2015) on this Directive was published, explaining the reasoning for amending Directive 98/70/ EC relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources with this requirement. 97 World Bioenergy Association, Oil Price Drop and Its Effect on the Bioenergy Industry (Stockholm: February 2015), http:// Oil%20price%20drop%20summary%20%28Feb%202015%29_0. pdf. The survey on which this information is based includes producers of bioenergy equipment, processed biomass, heat and electricity, biofuels, and biogas. 98 Sustainable Biomass Partnership website, http://www.; Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil website,; RFA website, http://www. 99 RFA, “Biorefinery Locations,” updated 2 May 2015, http://www. 100 IEA Bioenergy Task 42, Netherlands Country Report 2014 (Paris: 2014), upload_mm/c/a/5/8aa1e5a8-a842-4137-9b9c-1ab29ef53c3f_ Country%20Report%20NL%20IEA%20Bioenergy%20T42%20 171113.pdf. 101 Netherlands from USDA GAIN, Netherlands Legislation on Biomass Sustainability Criteria (Washington, DC: 2015), Legislation%20on%20Biomass%20Sustainability%20 Criteria_The%20Hague_Netherlands_4-20-2015.pdf; UK from Erin Voegele, “UK Sets Sustainability Standards for Solid Biomass, Biogas,” Biomass Magazine, 22 August 2013, uk-sets-sustainability-standards-for-solid-biomass-biogas. 102 United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Forest Products Statistics - 2013 Global Forest Products Facts and Figures (Rome: 2014), 0e287e9c252335f2936d3cdc5b6bbd5ff.pdf. 103 Ibid. 104 Ibid. 105 Sapp, op. cit. note 14. 106 Wood pellet production data based on past GSR data and projections for years 2000–2011, originally sourced from GSR2012, Lamers et al., “Developments in International Solid Biofuel Trade – An Analysis of Volumes, Policies, and Market Factors,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 5 (2012), pp. 3176–99; wood pellet production data for 2012–2013 from FAO Statistics Division (FAOSTAT), Forestry Production and Trade dataset, FO/E; projections for 2014 calculated using a linear regression based on the past five years of data. Figure 10 based on sources in this note. 107 FAO, op. cit. note 103. 108 “Pellet Plants,” Biomass Magazine, May 2015, http:// 109 Ibid. 110 Observ’ER, op. cit. note 23. 111 Solvay, “Solvay Launches Production of Torrefied Biomass, A New Solution That Contributes to Energy Transition,” press release (Brussels: 11 March 2014), press_releases/20140311-Biocoal.html. 112 Frankfurt School–UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance and Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2014 (Frankfurt: 2015). 113 World Bank, Global Economic Commodities Data, http://databank. aspx?source=global-economic-monitor-%28gem%29- commodities#, viewed April 2015. Figure 11 based on data from idem. 114 Ibid. 115 Sapp, op. cit. note 14. 116 Christoph Berg, F.O. Licht, “World Fuel Ethanol – Analysis and Outlook,” presentation at Ministry of Economy Trade, Industry (METI), Tokyo, Japan, g30819b40j.pdf. 117 Amanda Zhang Miao, op. cit. note 26. 118 Figure of 14 billion bushels from RFA, op. cit. note 65. Conversion based on U.S. Grains Council corn equivalent of 1 bushel = 0.027 metric tonnes. 119 Conab Corporativa, “Produção de cana pode alcançar 654 milhões de toneladas,” April 2015, imprensa-noticia.php?id=36719. 120 Coehlo, op. cit. note 55; F.O. Licht, op. cit. note 68. 121 Malawi produces only 18 million litres, although it supports a capacity of 36 million litres. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), The State of the Biofuels Market (Geneva: n.d.), BACK

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