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GSR 2015

234 ENDNOTES 06 ENERGY EFFICIENCY: RENEWABLE ENERGY’S TWIN PILLAR ENERGY EFFICIENCY: RENEWABLE ENERGY’S TWIN PILLAR 1 American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), The Twin Pillars of Sustainable Energy: Synergies Between Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology and Policy (Washington, DC: 1 May 2007), e074. 2 REN21, Renewables 2012 Global Status Report (Paris: 2012). 3 Sidebar 10 from the following sources: energy intensity from World Bank, Global Tracking Framework (Washington, DC: 2013), global-tracking-framework-vol-3-3-main-report, and from World Energy Council, Energy Efficiency Policies Around the World: Review and Evaluation (London: 2008), http://www.worldenergy. org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/PUB_Energy_Efficiency_- Policies_Around_the_World_Review_and_Evaluation_2008_ WEC.pdf; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), “Building Performance Database,” 2014, performance-database; DOE, EERE, “Building Technologies Program: Buildings Database,” 2004, http://eere.buildinggreen. com/; EnOB, Research for Energy-Optimised Buildings, “Net Zero- Energy Buildings – Map of International Projects,” September 2013,; New Buildings Institute (NBI), “Case Studies of ZNE Verified and ZNE Emerging Projects – Path to Zero Energy Buildings,” 2014,; Passive House Institute, “Passive House Database,” 2015,; PassivHaus Datenbank, “International Passive House Database,” 2015,; ZEBRA2020, Zebra2020 – Nearly Zero-Energy Building Strategy 2020, 2014,; NABERSNZ from International Energy Agency (IEA), “Energy Efficiency Policy and Measures Database,” 2014, energyefficiency/; Algeria from “Launch of Programme to Measure Energy Efficiency in Buildings,” Algeria Press Service, 30 July 2014, programme-to-measure-energy-efficiency-in-buildings; energy efficiency data collection from IEA, Energy Efficiency Indicators: Essentials for Policy Making (Paris: 2014), and from Enerdata, “Definition of Energy Efficiency Indicators in ODYSSEE Data Base,” 2012, pdf; energy efficiency data challenges from S. Shnapp and J. Laustsen, Robust Building Data: A Driver for Policy Development, Technical Report (Paris: Global Buildings Performance Network, February 2013), DataFINAL_low_0.pdf. 4 Enerdata, Global Energy Statistical Yearbook 2014, https://; Figure 37 from idem. 5 Ibid. 6 See, for example, ACEEE, The 2014 International Energy Efficiency Scorecard, Executive Summary (Washington, DC: July 2014),; IEA, Energy Efficiency Market Report 2014, Executive Summary (Paris: OECD/IEA, October 2014), EEMR2014SUM.pdf. 7 Based on 2010 data from D. Ürge-Vorsatz et al., “Heating and Cooling Energy Trends and Drivers in Buildings,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 41 (January 2015), pp. 85–98. 8 Ibid. 9 IEA, Technology Roadmap: Energy Efficiency Building Envelopes (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2013). http://www. TechnologyRoadmapEnergyEfficientBuildingEnvelopes.pdf. Efficient types of insulation (in terms of thermal conductivity, or the rate at which heat flows through a material) currently include vacuum-insulated panels (VIP), aerogel, polyurethane boards, and spray extruded polystyrene. Note that the energy savings potential for cooling derived from increasing thermal mass is estimated to be 7–25%, depending on location and climate. 10 O. Lucon et al., “Chapter 9: Buildings,” in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC (Cambridge, U.K. and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2014); D. Ürge-Vorsatz et al., Best Practice Policies for Low Energy and Carbon Buildings. A Scenario Analysis, prepared by the Center for Climate Change and Sustainable Policy (3CSEP) for the Global Best Practice Network for Buildings (Budapest: 2012), best-practice-policies-low-carbon-energy-buildings-based- scenario-analysis. 11 International Passive House Association, “Passive House Certification Criteria,” 2015, http://www.passivehouse- 12 Passnet, “Current Situation of Passive House in Europe,” Intelligent Energy Europe, 2015, situation/index.htm. 13 P. Torcellini, S. Pless, and M. Deru, Zero Energy Buildings: A Critical Look at the Definition (Golden, CO: U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2006). 14 Benoit Lebot, International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC), personal communication with REN21, 25 March 2015. 15 NBI, 2014 Getting to Zero Status Update (Vancouver, WA: 2014), Zero_Update.pdf. 16 Ibid. 17 “Architects Across the World Commit to Net-Zero Energy Buildings,” Greenbiz, 25 August 2014, architects-across-world-commit-net-zero-energy-buildings. 18 NBI, op. cit. note 15. 19 Ibid. 20 These projects include the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) at BCA Academy in Singapore, per Building and Construction Authority, Centre for Sustainable Buildings, Leading the Way to Net Zero, 2009-2014: Inside SE Asia’s First Retrofitted Zero Energy Building (Singapore: 2012), publication/se/sep14.pdf; the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)and UN-HABITAT Headquarters in Kenya, per UNEP, Building for the Future. A United Nations Showcase in Nairobi (Nairobi: 2011), gc26/Building-for-the-Future.pdf; the Pusat Tenaga Malaysia Zero Energy Office Building, per P.E. Kristensen et al., “The Design on the Zero Energy Office Building for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia,” Conference on Sustainable Building South East Asia, Malaysia, 5–7 November 2007, daten/iconda/CIB11370.pdf; the Pearl River Tower in China, per R. Frechette and R. Gilchrist, “Towards Zero Energy: A Case Study of the Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou, China,” conference proceeding, CTBUH 8th World Congress, Dubai, UAE, 3–5 March 2008, N46s7Es%3d&tabid=1720&language=en-GB; and the Magic School of Green Technology in Taiwan, per J. Yudelson and U. Meyer, The World’s Greenest Buildings (London: Routledge, 2013). 21 Lucon et al., op. cit. note 10; ILFI, NBI, and SKANSKA, Net Zero and Living Building Challenge Financial Study: A Cost Comparison Report for Buildings in the District of Columbia (Vancouver, WA: 2013). ZNECostComparisonBuildingsDC.pdf. 22 Building Services Research and Information Association (BSRIA) Ltd., “Growth in the World Heat Pump Market,” August 2014, pump-market/; BSRIA Ltd., Does the Heat Pump Market Still Have Energy? World Heat Pump Market Review from BSRIA (Bracknell, Berkshire, UK: 2012). 23 Luisa F. Cabeza et al., “Investigating Greenhouse Challenge from Growing Trends of Electricity Consumption Through Home Appliances in Buildings,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 36 (2014), pp. 188–93. 24 N. Shah et al., “Superefficient Refrigerators: Opportunities and Challenges for Efficiency Improvement Globally,” in ACEEE, 2014 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings: The Next Generation: Reaching for High Energy Savings (Washington, DC: 2014), papers/8-1072.pdf#page=1. 25 A.J. Howard et al., “Transformation of an Industry: A History of Energy Efficiency in Televisions,” in ACEEE, 2012 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Fueling Our Future with Efficiency (Washington, DC: 2012), proceedings/2012/data/papers/0193-000292.pdf#page=1. 26 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Assessment of BACK

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