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GSR 2015

211 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT EuroSun2010_Keynote-Henning.pdf. 82 Figure of 75% estimated based on Jakob, “Solar Air-Conditioning in Europe,” op. cit. note 81, slide 16. District systems in Europe from IEA-ETSAP and IRENA, op. cit. note 5, p. 13, http://www.irena.org/ DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_ETSAP_Tech_Brief_ R12_Solar_Thermal_Residential_2015.pdf. For example, a new large-scale system (180 m2 collector field) at a Swedish coffee producer facility in Karlstad, per Bärbel Epp, “Sweden: Novel Solar Cooling Installation Boasts Average Electrical COP of 10.6,” Solar Thermal World, 28 October 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/ content/sweden-novel-solar-cooling-installation-boasts-average- electrical-cop-106. Australia, Mediterranean islands, and Middle East from IEA, Technology Roadmap, Solar Heating and Cooling (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2012), p. 11, http://www.iea.org/publications/ freepublications/publication/Solar_Heating_Cooling_ Roadmap_2012_WEB.pdf. The Australian market has grown 30% annually over the past eight years, from Uli Jakob, Green Chiller and Solem Consulting, cited in Eva Augsten, “Australia: Country to Publish First Solar Air Conditioning Standard,” Solar Thermal World, 17 June 2013, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/ australia-country-publish-first-solar-air-conditioning-standard. Australia also from EnergyAE, “The Urban Solar Thermal Power Station,” 26 August 2014, http://www.energyae.com/updates; in India, for example, solar thermal is used for cooling at a hospital and at Muni Seva Ashram in Gujarat state, where 100 parabolic dishes (Scheffler type) supply a 100-tonne air conditioning system, from Eva Augsten, “India: Quarterly Sun Focus Magazine Presents Concentrating Solar Heat,” Solar Thermal World, 19 September 2013, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/india-quarterly-sun- focus-magazine-presents-concentrating-solar-heat. 83 Daniel Rowe, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia, personal communication with REN21, 29 April 2013. 84 IEA, op. cit. note 82. 85 Moritz, Schubert, Sabine Putz , Contracting Models for Solar Thermally Driven Cooling and Heating Systems, prepared for IEA- SHC, Task 48, September 2014, p. 6. Note that the solar collectors generally are used for other applications (e.g., water and space heating) as well. 86 The South Africa project is a concentrating solar thermal collector that powers an absorption chiller in the office of Mobile Telephone Networks, from “South Africa Installs Its First Solar Thermal Cooling Project,” Renewable Energy World, September/October 2014, p. 14. It was not, however, the first in South Africa, per Uli Jakob, Green Chiller Verband für Sorptionskälte e.V., personal communication with REN21, 22 April 2015. See also Bärbel Epp, “South Africa: Fresnel Collectors Keep It Cool in MTN’s Server Rooms,” Solar Thermal World, 28 August 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/ south-africa-fresnel-collectors-keep-it-cool-mtns-server- rooms. Arizona from Bärbel Epp, “USA: S.O.L.I.D. Operates 3.4 MWth Cooling System as ESCO in Arizona,” Solar Thermal World, 29 August 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/ usa-solid-operates-34-mwth-cooling-system-esco-arizona. 87 The high school project near Phoenix has a collector area of 4,865 m2 . Financing challenges (inability to find a backer to pre-finance the project) led S.O.L.I.D. to develop a new fundraising model, providing private investors with fixed interest on loans, and also receiving performance-based incentives from Arizona Public Service for relief that the solar cooling provides to the grid, especially during peak load hours, per Epp, “USA: S.O.L.I.D. Operates…,” op. cit. note 86. The high school is the Desert Mountain School in Scottsdale, Arizona. Another source says that the system is 1,750 kW, per “Solar Cooling for Desert Mountain Highschool, USA,” SDH Newsletter, October 2014, http://www.solar-district-heating.eu/NewsEvents/Newsletters/ No12October2014.aspx. Note that several U.S. businesses, including breweries, hotels, universities, dairies, and others, rely on solar thermal for heating and cooling, from SEIA, “New Cost Saving Report Highlights Value of Solar Heating & Cooling,” press release (Washington, DC: 8 October 2014), http://www. seia.org/news/new-cost-saving-report-highlights-value-solar- heating-cooling, and from SEIA, Saving Money & Energy: How Solar Heating & Cooling is Paying Big Dividends for US Businesses (Washington, DC: 2014), http://www.seia.org/news/ new-cost-saving-report-highlights-value-solar-heating-cooling. 88 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. See also, for example, Uli Jacob, Green Chiller, “Status and Perspective of Solar Cooling in Europe,” Australian Solar Cooling 2013 Conference, Sydney, Australia, April 2013. Uptake limited from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014 (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2014), p. 225. 89 Eva Augsten, “The World of Solar Process Heat,” Sun & Wind Energy, March 2014, pp. 36–45. 90 Collector area and equivalent capacity from Christoph Brunner and Wolfgang Glatzl, AEE-INTEC, “Solare Prozesswärme weltweit im Aufwärtstrend,” undated, http://www.aee.at/aee/index. php?option=com_content&view=article&id=837&Itemid=113 (in German), provided by Bärbel Epp, personal communication with REN21, February 2015; probably miss several plants from Ruud Kempener, IRENA, interview by Bärbel Epp, “‘Very Few Countries Have Policies Explicitly Supporting Renewable Deployment in the Industry Sector’,” Solar Thermal World, 2 March 2015, http://www. solarthermalworld.org/content/very-few-countries-have-policies- explicitly-supporting-renewable-deployment-industry-sector; from Bärbel Epp, solrico, personal communication with REN21, February 2015; and from IEA-ETSAP and IRENA, Solar Heat for Industrial Processes, Technology Brief E21 (Bonn: January 2015), p. 16, http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/ IRENA_ETSAP_Tech_Brief_E21_Solar_Heat_Industrial_2015. pdf. China is seeing growing interest in medium- and high- temperature systems, with 50% market growth for building integration and industrial process heat systems in 2012–2013, up from 35% in 2011, per Sun’s Vision, cited in Goess, op. cit. note 18. At least 19 new solar process heat installations have been added in India over the past two years, from Jaideep Malaviya, “India: UNDP Supports 53 New Concentrating Solar Thermal Projects,” Solar Thermal World, 23 February 2015, http://www.solarthermalworld. org/content/india-undp-supports-53-new-concentrating-solar- thermal-projects. Note that there is no agreed-upon standard conversion factor for solar concentrators, and an expert group of the IEA-SHC Task 49 is currently dealing with this topic. However, for now conversion using 0.7 kWth/m2 is considered acceptable, per Mauthner, AEE-INTEC, personal communication with REN21, March–May 2014. 91 Salvador Steffani, Captasol, Guanajuato, Mexico, cited in (and other information from) Alejandro Diego Rosell, “Mexico: Captasol to Enter Industrial Solar Drying Market,” Solar Thermal World, 17 November 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/mexico- captasol-enter-industrial-solar-drying-market. For more on India see, for example, Jaideep Malaviya, “India: Solar Drying System with Vacuum Tubes Pays Off Within the First Year,” Solar Thermal World, 28 August 2013, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/ india-solar-drying-system-vacuum-tubes-pays-within-first-year. 92 Database for Applications of Solar Heat Integration in Industrial Processes (SHIP), http://ship-plants.info/reports/areas/years, viewed 25 February 2015. In addition, a demonstration project began operation in Mongolia in February 2014 to develop collectors that can withstand harsh climates, from Frank Stier, “Mongolia: Cost-Effective Solar Process Heat Collector for Harsh Climates,” Solar Thermal World, 12 September 2014, http:// solarthermalworld.org/content/mongolia-cost-effective-solar- process-heat-collector-harsh-climates. 93 Jaideep Malaviya, “India: Pilgrim Sites Use Solar Energy,” Solar Thermal World, 31 May 2013, http://solarthermalworld.org/ content/india-pilgrim-sites-use-solar-energy. At least a dozen large religious sites in India use concentrating solar thermal for community cooking; the largest (Saibaba Ashram in Shirdi, Maharashtra State) uses solar thermal concentrators (parabolic dishes) to cook for 50,000 people per day, saving 100,000 kilograms of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) annually, from idem. By late 2013, at least 23 additional systems were under development in India, primarily to replace conventional boilers and to generate steam for cooking, per Eva Augsten, “India: Quarterly Sun Focus Magazine Presents Concentrating Solar Heat,” Solar Thermal World, 19 September 2013, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/ india-quarterly-sun-focus-magazine-presents-concentrating- solar-heat. Note that, as of late 2013 or early 2014, India had 7,967 m² of solar concentrator systems for solar cooling, and a total of 27,972 m² of solar concentrator-based systems for industrial applications, from Shirish Garud, The Energy and Resources Institute, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2014. 94 Study commissioned by International Finance Corporation, cited in Bärbel Epp, “Egypt, Pakistan and Morocco: Three Countries and Their Solar Process Heat Potential,” Solar Thermal World, 27 February 2015, http://www.solarthermalworld.org/content/egypt- pakistan-and-morocco-three-countries-and-their-solar-process- heat-potential. Note that solar thermal for industrial purposes is very specific to the on-site situation, including the amount and temperature of heat needed, integration into processes, specific BACK

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