Please activate JavaScript!
Please install Adobe Flash Player, click here for download

GSR 2015

76 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS TABLE 2. STATUS OF RENEWABLE TECHNOLOGIES: CHARACTERISTICS AND COSTS (continued) TECHNOLOGY TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS INSTALLED COSTS OR LCOE USD / kW or US cents / kWh DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Biogas digester Digester size: 6–8 m3 Unit cost: USD 612 / unit (Asia); USD 886 / unit (Africa) Biomass gasifier Size: 20–5,000 kW LCOE: 8–12 (Global) LCOE: 5–6 (China) Solar home system System size: 20–100 W LCOE: 160–200 (Global) LCOE: 4 (Bangladesh) Household wind turbine Turbine size: 0.1–3 kW (off-grid, residential) 1.1–2.5 MW (industrial, institutional) Capital cost: 10,000 / kW (1 kW turbine) 5,000 / kW (5 kW) 2,500–3,500 / kW (250 kW) LCOE: 15–35+ Hydropower: Off-grid/rural Plant size: 0.1–1,000 kW Plant/storage type: run-of-river, diurnal storage, hydrokinetic Capital costs: 1,175–6,000 LCOE: 5–40 Village-scale mini-grid System size: 10–1,000 kW LCOE: 25–100 TECHNOLOGY TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS CAPITAL COSTS USD / kW TYPICAL ENERGY COSTS LCOE – US cents / kWh HOT WATER / HEATING / COOLING Biomass heat plant Plant size: 0.1–15 MWth Capacity factor: ~50–90% Conversion efficiency: 80–90% 400–1,500 4.7–29 Wood pellet heater (domestic) Plant size: 5–100 MWth Capacity factor: 15–30% Conversion efficiency: 80–95% 360–1,400 6.5–36 Biomass CHP Plant size: 0.5–100 kWth Capacity factor: ~60–80% Conversion efficiency: 70–80% for heat and power 600–6,000 4.3–12.6 Geothermal Direct Use: Space heating in buildings Plant size: 0.1–1 MWth Capacity factor: 25–30% 1,865–4,595 10–27 Geothermal Direct Use: District heating Plant size: 3.8–35 MWth Capacity factor: 25–30% 665–1,830 5.8–13 TECHNOLOGY FEEDSTOCKS FEEDSTOCK CHARACTERISTICS ESTIMATED PRODUCTION COSTS US cents / litre1 TRANSPORT FUELS Biodiesel Soy, rapeseed, mustard seed, palm, jatropha, waste vegetable oils, animal fats Range of feedstocks with different crop yields per hectare; hence, production costs vary widely among countries. Co-products include high-protein meal. Soybean oil: 56–72 (Argentina); 100–120 (Global average) Palm oil: 100–130 (Indonesia, Malaysia, and other) Rapeseed oil: 105–130 (EU) Ethanol Sugar cane, sugar beets, corn, cassava, sorghum, wheat (and cellulose in the future) Range of feedstocks with wide yield and cost variations. Co-products include animal feed, heat and power from bagasse residues. Advanced biofuels are not yet fully commercial and have higher costs. Sugar cane: 82–93 (Brazil) Corn (dry mill): 85–128 (United States) 1 Litre of diesel or petrol equivalent. 400–1,5004.7–29 360–1,4006.5–36 600–6,0004.3–12.6 1,865–4,59510–27 665–1,8305.8–13

Pages Overview