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GSR 2015

185 01 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT en-sutp-articles/3823-10-principles-of-sustainable-urban- transport. 112 IEA, op. cit. note 2. 113 IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 9. 114 Some countries have much higher shares, including Brazil (20.1%), the United States (4.4%), and the European Union (4.2%), all as of 2010, from IEA, Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2015: Energy Technology Perspectives 2015 Excerpt, IEA Input to the Clean Energy Ministerial (Paris: 2015), p. 90, http://www.iea. org/publications/freepublications/publication/Tracking_Clean_ Energy_Progress_2015.pdf. In 2013, biofuels supplied 4.6% of US energy consumption in the transport sector, Stacy C. Davis, Susan W. Diegel, and Robert G. Boundy, Transportation Energy Data Book Edition 33 (Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, July 2014), http://cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb33/Edition33_Full_Doc.pdf. 115 For more information on concerns and impacts, see Bioenergy text in Market and Industry Trends section; production increased from F.O. Licht/Licht Interactive Data, “Fuel Ethanol: World Production by Country,” 2015, and “Biodiesel: World Production, by Country,” 2015. 116 James H. Stock, The Renewable Fuel Standard: A Path Forward (New York: Columbia University, Center on Global Energy Policy, April 2015), p. 8, http://energypolicy.columbia.edu/sites/default/ files/energy/Renewable%20Fuel%20Standard_A%20Path%20 Forward_April%202015.pdf. 117 F.O. Licht/Licht Interactive Data, op. cit. note 115. 118 Heinz Kopetz and Bharadwaj Kummamuru, World Bioenergy Association, personal communications with REN21, 8 April 2015; Carlo Hamelinck, Ecofys, personal communication with REN21, 9 April 2015; Gonzalo Bravo, Fundación Bariloche, Argentina, personal communication with REN21, April 2015. 119 See Biomass Energy text in Market and Industry Trends section and Policy Landscape section. 120 Heather Allen, Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), Partnership on Sustainable Transport (SLoCaT), 12 March 2015. 121 F.O. Licht/Licht Interactive Data, op. cit. note 115. 122 U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service, China’s 2014 Fuel Ethanol Production is Forecast to Increase Six Percent (Washington, DC: November 2014), p. 2, http:// gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/ Biofuels%20Annual_Beijing_China%20-%20Peoples%20 Republic%20of_11-4-2014.pdf; Jim Lane, “Biofuel Mandates Around the World: 2015,” Biofuels Digest, 31 December 2014, http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2014/12/31/ biofuels-mandates-around-the-world-2015/. 123 See Biomass Energy text in Market and Industry Trends section. 124 Jim Lane, “What’s New, Different and Hot in Military and Aviation Biofuels,” Biofuels Digest, 19 February 2015, http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2015/02/19/ whats-new-different-and-hot-in-military-and-aviation- biofuels/; Erin Voegele, “China Approves Biobased Aviation Fuel for Commercial Use,” Biomass Magazine, 20 February 2014, http://biomassmagazine.com/articles/10031/ china-approves-biobased-aviation-fuel-for-commercial-use. 125 The U.S. Navy and Italian Navy each continued to develop biofuelled warships as part of their Green Fleet initiatives, from Jim Lane, “Inside the US Navy’s New Cost-competitive Military Biofuels Program,” Biofuels Digest, 21 September 2014, http://www. biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2014/09/21/inside-the-us-navys- new-cost-competitive-military-biofuels-program/, and from Jim Lane, “Flotta Verde! The Italian Navy’s Green Fleet Underway: The Story, in Pictures,” Biofuels Digest, 16 March 2014, http://www. biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2014/03/16/flotta-verde-the-italian- navys-green-fleet-underway-the-story-in-pictures/; the Chilean and US navies extended their biofuels research collaboration, from Jim Lane, “Chile, US to Continue Collaboration on Navy Biofuels Research,” Biofuels Digest, 28 April 2014, http://www. biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2014/08/28/chile-us-to-continue- collaboration-on-navy-biofuels-research/; Australia announced plans to run 50 navy vehicles on 50/50 biodiesel by 2020, from Meghann Sapp, “Royal Australian Navy Stumps for Biofuels to Remain Compatible with US,” Biofuels Digest, 26 May 2014, http:// www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2014/05/26/royal-australian- navy-stumps-for-biofuels-to-remain-compatible-with-us/. 126 Isabel Lane, “Navy’s NAVAIR Complete Supersonic ATJ Flight with Gevo’s Fuel,” Biofuels Digest, 29 December 2014, http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2014/12/29/ navys-navair-completes-supersonic-atj-flight-with-gevos-fuel/. 127 European Automobile Manufacturers Association, “Natural Gas Vehicles Increased in Europe,” press release (Brussels: 30 April 2015), http://www.acea.be/uploads/press_releases_files/ AFV_registrations_Q12015_FINAL.pdf. 128 “Finland’s Biggest Waste-to-Biomethane Plant Opened,” NGV Global, 6 March 2015. http://www.ngvglobal.com/blog/finlands- biggest-waste-to-biomethane-plant-opened-0306#more-34561; University of Eastern Finland, “Finnish Biogas Statistic 2014 Published: Transport Use Dominates Growth,” NGV Global, 15 October 2014, http://www.ngvglobal.com/blog/finnish-biogas- statistics-2014-published-transport-use-dominates-growth-1015; Netherlands Orange Gas BV, “OrangeGas Opens Overijssel Biomethane Filling Station,” NGV Global, 24 February 2015, http://www.ngvglobal.com/blog/orangegas-opens-overijssel- biomethane-filling-station-0224 - more-34435; Anaerobic Digestion and Bioresources Association, “UK Biomethane Production Surges,” NGV Global, 2 December 2014, http://www. ngvglobal.com/blog/uk-biomethane-production-surges-1202. 129 Brazil from IEA Bioenergy Task 37, Country Reports Summary (Paris: 2015), p. 12, https://www.cibiogas.org/sites/default/files/ IEA Bioenergy Task 37 Country Report Summary 2014.pdf; China from Greenlane Biogas, “Greenlane Biogas to Supply Two Biogas Upgrading Plants into China,” NGV Global, 22 January 2015, http://www.ngvglobal.com/blog/greenlane-biogas-to-supply- two-biogas-upgrading-plants-into-china-0122; Scania, “Swedish Expertise to Produce Cleaner Transport Fuel in India,” NGV Global, 2 April 2014, http://www.ngvglobal.com/blog/swedish-expertise- to-produce-cleaner-transport-fuel-in-india-0403; Wärtsilä, “Indonesia’s First Bio-LNG Plant Begins with Feasibility Study,” NGV Global, 13 October 2014, http://www.ngvglobal.com/blog/ indonesias-first-bio-lng-plant-begins-with-feasibility-study-1013; Malaysia from “Upgraded Palm Oil Effluent Biogas Powering NGVs in Selangor,” NGV Global, 11 April 2014, http://www.ngvglobal. com/blog/category/vehicles-fuels/biomethane/page/7; Gazasia, “Philippines Bio-LNG Plant Inaugurated,” NGV Global, 2 April 2014, http://www.ngvglobal.com/blog/philippines-bio-lng-plant- inaugurated-0402; Canada from “Surrey Waste-to-Biomethane Facility Nears Design and Build Phase,” NGV Global, 5 January 2015, http://www.ngvglobal.com/blog/surrey-waste-to- biomethane-facility-nears-design-and-build-phase-0105; “Gaz Métro and Saint-Hyacinthe Fuel City Fleet with Biomethane,” NGV Global, 24 November 2014, http://www.ngvglobal.com/blog/gaz- metro-and-saint-hyacinthe-fuel-city-fleet-with-biomethane-1124; United States from “Flare Off, Biomethane On for Grand Junction, Colorado,” NGV Global, 22 April 2015, http://www.ngvglobal.com/ blog/flare-off-biomethane-on-for-grand-junction-colorado-0422; “BP Energy, Applied LNG Agreement Adds More Biomethane for Transport Fuel,” NGV Global, 20 February 2015, http://www. ngvglobal.com/blog/bp-energy-applied-lng-agreement-adds- more-biomethane-for-transport-fuel-0220#more-34429; “Clean Energy Moves Biomethane,” NGV Global, 5 January 2015, http:// www.ngvglobal.com/blog/clean-energy-moves-biomethane- 0105#more-33928; “Landfill Gas to Power Monterey Refuse Fleet in Closed Loop Operation,” NGV Global, 16 February 2015, http:// www.ngvglobal.com/blog/landfill-gas-to-power-monterey-refuse- fleet-in-closed-loop-operation-0216. 130 IEA, “Global EV Outlook 2015,” 11 March 2015, http://www.iea. org/evi/Global-EV-Outlook-2015-Update_2page.pdf. 131 Ibid. 132 Ibid. 133 Mathias Merforth, GIZ, Eschborn, Germany, personal communication with REN21, 16 March 2015. 134 Nissan, “Nissan Partners with Bhutan on National EV Strategy,” press release (Thimphu, Bhutan: 21 February 2014), http://nissannews.com/en-US/nissan/usa/releases/ nissan-partners-with-bhutan-on-national-ev-strategy; Shrawan Raja, “Bhutan Plans to Replace Government Vehicles and Vaxis with Nissan Leafs and Electric Models,” IndianAutosBlog 2 December 2013, http://indianautosblog.com/2013/12/ bhutan-electric-vehicles-nissan-leaf-107455. 135 Merforth, op. cit. note 133. 136 Directly connected from Alex Davies, “An Easy-to-install Solar Charger That Juices Your EV Off the Grid,” Wired, 14 October 2014, http://www.wired.com/2014/10/envision-solar-ev-charger/; Nino Marchetti, “New Japanese Electric Buses Soon to Be Solar Powered,” EarthTechling, 20 February 2015, http://earthtechling. com/2014/02/new-japanese-electric-buses-soon-to-be-solar- powered/; integrated directly from Kristi Eaton, “Solar Power BACK

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