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GSR 2015

203 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT a shift from the past when Chinese government entities almost always came to the rescue of state-run companies in danger of default, from Doug Young, “LDK Melts Down, Solar Default Signs Grow,” Young China Biz, 2 April 2014, http://www.youngchinabiz. com/en/ldk-melts-down-solar-default-signs-grow/; in early 2014, China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued new and reinforced guidelines on the need for major consolidation of solar PV manufacturing companies, from Mark Osborne, “China Pushing Harder for PV Manufacturing Consolidation; 10 Companies to Dominate,” PV-Tech, 7 January 2015, http://www. pv-tech.org/news/china_pushing_harder_for_pv_manufacturing_ consolidation_10_companies_to_dom. 113 The others were Suntech Power Holdings Co, Zhejiang Topoint Photovoltaic Co., and Shanghai Chaori Solar Energy Science & Technology Co., from Phil Milford and Michael Bathon, “LDK Files for Bankruptcy in U.S. Court on China Solar Glut,” Renewable Energy World, 21 October 2014, http://www. renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/10/ldk-files- for-bankruptcy-in-u-s-court-on-china-solar-glut. LDK exited US bankruptcy proceedings in early 2015 but was still heavily debt laden with at least USD 2 billion owed to Chinese banks, from Mark Osborne, “LDK Solar Exits Bankruptcy Proceedings,” PV-Tech, 20 February 2015, http://www.pv-tech.org/news/ ldk_solar_exits_bankruptcy_proceedings. Chaori became the first company in modern history to default on a Chinese domestic bond offering, from Doug Young, “New Solar Woes for Canadian Solar, Chaori, Suntech,” Young China Biz, 8 October 2014, http://www.youngchinabiz.com/en/new-solar-woes- for-canadian-solar-chaori-suntech/. Lower-tier a-Si thin film producer and BIPV developer, China Solar Energy Holdings, closed a manufacturing plant in Changzhou after being forced into bankruptcy, from Katherine Steiner Dicks, “China Solar Energy Closes a-Si Plant in Changzhou,” PV Insider, Thin Film Brief 1–15 April 2014, http://news.pv-insider.com/thin-film-pv/ thin-film-brief-1-%E2%80%93-15-april-2014. 114 Companies that took over competition from Xiaoting Wang, BNEF, cited in Mikael Holter, “China Buying REC Solar for $640 Million Avoids Trade Spat,” Bloomberg, 24 November 2014, http://www. bloomberg.com/news/2014-11-24/china-national-bluestar- s-elkem-buys-rec-solar-for-640-million.html; and from Ehren Goossens, “Shunfeng Acquires Suntech in Bid to Become Largest Solar Supplier,” Renewable Energy World, 29 April 2014, http:// www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/04/ shunfeng-acquires-suntech-in-bid-to-become-largest-solar- supplier. See also “NRG Energy Acquires Roof Diagnostics Solar, Dominion Resources’ Retail Business,” “Shunfeng Shareholders Approve Suntech Acquisition,” and “China Sunergy Announces the Sale of Subsidiary Sunergy Shanghai,” all in PV News, May 2014, p. 5; “First Solar Acquires Skytron Energy” and “RBI Solar Acquires Renusol,” both in PV News, July 2014, p. 5; “Asian Development Bank Acquires Equity Stake in Welspun” and “BayWa Acquires Assets of Martifer Solar USA,” both in PV News, August 2014, p. 6; “Direct Energy Enters Solar Market Through Acquisition of Astrum Solar,” “Solectria Becomes Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Yaskawa Electric,” “Hevel Solar to Acquire 100% of Avelar Solar Technology,” and “Hanergy Completes Acquisition of Alta Devices,” all in PV News, September 2014, pp. 5–6; “Shunfeng Purchases Troubled SAG Solarstrom” and “OpTerra Acquires Chevron Energy Services,” both in PV News, October 2014, pp. 4–5; “NRG Energy Acquires Pure Energies Group” and “Conergy Sells Distribution Businesses to Soligent, HES PV,” both in PV News, November 2014, p. 5; “SunEdison and TerraForm Acquire First Wind” and “SolarBridge Acquired by Partner SunPower,” both in PV News, December 2014, p. 5. 115 SolarCity purchased Silevo from Robert McIntosh and James Mandel, “5 Reasons Solar Installers are Vertically Integrating,” Green Biz, 15 July 2014, http://www.greenbiz. com/blog/2014/07/15/five-reasons-us-solar-installers-are- vertically-integrating; and from Kevin Bullis, “Solar City and Tesla Hatch a Plan to Lower the Cost of Solar Power,” Technology Review, 19 September 2014, http://www.technologyreview.com/ news/530816/solar-city-and-tesla-hatch-a-plan-to-lower-the-cost- of-solar-power/; efficiency and storage from Eric Wesoff, “SolarCity Lets Individuals Invest in PV Projects Through a New Acquisition,” Greentech Media, 15 January 2014, http://www.greentechmedia. com/articles/read/SolarCity-Lets-Individuals-Invest-in-PV- Projects-Through-a-New-Acquisition. Sunrun from “Sunrun Announces $150M Equity Investment,” PV News, June 2014, p. 6. In addition, Sunrun purchased the residential division of installer REC Solar, and REG Energy announced plans to begin providing leases in-house, from McIntosh and Mandel, op. cit. this note; CNBM from “CNBM Completes Purchase of Avancis,” PV News, October 2014, p. 5; Canadian Solar from Eric Wesoff, “Canadian Solar Finally Acquires Recurrent Energy for $265 Million in Cash,” Greentech Media, 2 February 2015, https://www.greentechmedia. com/articles/read/Canadian-Solar-Finally-Acquires-Recurrent- Energy-for-265-Million-Cash; Jennifer Runyon, “Duke Energy Takes Equity Stake in REC Solar, Embraces Distributed Generation,” Renewable Energy World, 9 February 2015, http:// www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2015/02/duke- energy-takes-equity-stake-in-rec-solar-embraces-distributed- generation. 116 SunEdison and JIC Capital from “SunEdison Enters Chinese Market,” PV News, December 2014, p. 6. Hanergy from Zachary Shahan, “IKEA to Start Selling Solar Panels in Switzerland,” Renewable Energy World, 14 December 2014, http://www. renewableenergyworld.com/rea/blog/post/2014/12/ikea-to- start-selling-solar-panels-in-switzerland; Suntech, “Suntech Expands Presence in Benelux with New Partnerships and Projects,” press release (Wuxi, China: 8 December 2014), http:// www.suntech-power.com/news/news143.html; LG Electronics from “LG to Supply Borrego Solar With Modules for Commercial Systems,” PV News, October 2014, p. 4; Trina, Yingli, and Canadian Solar from Doug Young, “New Energy: Solar Finance Entices, Frustrates Plant Builders,” Young China Biz, 13 February 2015, http://www.youngchinabiz.com/en/new-energy-solar-finance- entices-frustrates-plant-builders/. Other partnerships included: First Solar, “First Solar Enters Residential Market with Strategic Investment in Clean Energy Collective,” press release (Tempe, AZ and Louisville, CO: 10 December 2014), http://investor.firstsolar. com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=887037; Shan Li, “SolarCity Teams Up with Best Buy to Reach More Eco-conscious Shoppers,” Los Angeles Times, 12 March 2014, http://www.latimes.com/ business/la-fi-mo-solarcity-best-buy-20140310-story.html; Christopher Martin, “SolarCity Offering Rooftop Solar Power to DirecTV Customers,” Renewable Energy World, 11 March 2015, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2015/03/ solarcity-offering-rooftop-solar-power-to-directv-customers. 117 Kyocera’s residential hybrid storage (Multi DC Link) system can store directly DC power from solar PV, significantly reducing energy loss in the conversion process and increasing efficiency in storage power from 89.8% to 96%; and Sharp is marketing residential storage systems combined with cloud-based platform that enables the system to determine the best times to store and release electricity, all from Junko Movellan, “Post-FIT Japan: Manufacturers Promote PV Systems with Inverter-Integrated Energy Storage Systems,” Renewable Energy World, 19 March 2015, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/ article/2015/03/post-fit-japan-manufacturers-promote-pv- systems-with-inverter-integrated-energy-storage-systems. Siemens from Charles Thurston, “PV Innovations Highlight Intersolar 2014,” Renewable Energy World, 14 July 2014, http:// www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/07/ pv-innovations-highlight-intersolar-2014. Other examples include: “Stem and Kyocera Partner on Energy Storage,” PV News, November 2014, p. 4. Enphase Energy (United States) implemented pilot projects with Lennar Homes and a announced partnership with Groupe Solution Energie (France) to introduce its energy storage solution with modular, plug-and-play storage device in the United States and in some European markets, from “Enphase Enters Energy Storage Market,” PV News, December 2014, pp. 4–5; “AREVA and Schneider Electric Sign Storage R&D Agreement,” PV News, December 2014, p. 5. US firms ViZn and LFC Capital Inc. partnered to offer a leasing programme in the United States for its flow battery storage systems paired with solar PV installations for commercial and industrial microgrid applications, from Meg Cichon, “Leasing Option Now Available for Solar Plus Flow Battery Energy Storage Systems,” Renewable Energy World, 26 February 2015, http:// www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2015/02/ leasing-option-now-available-for-solar-plus-flow-battery-energy- storage-systems. In early 2015, the Australian government announced that Synergy (Australia) would receive funding for a trial combination of rooftop solar PV systems plus battery storage on more than 100 homes at a new housing development near Perth, Australia, from Australian Government, Australian Renewable Energy Agency, “Residential Rooftop Solar with Battery Storage a Step Closer,” 17 March 2015, http://arena.gov.au/media/ residential-rooftop-solar-with-battery-storage-a-step-closer/. 118 Examples for 2014 include: SunEdison from Scott Thill, “Solar Yieldcos: A New Financing Tool to Spread the Solar Boom,” Solar Energy, 18 June 2014, http://solarenergy.net/News/solar-yieldcos- new-financing-tool-spread-solar-boom/, and Louis Berger, “What You Need to Know About How Clean Energy YieldCos Work,” BACK

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