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GSR 2015

41 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT Applications range from residential to industrial scales and may be decentralised or grid-connected, for example through district heating systems. Modern bio-heat is followed by transport biofuels and bio-power.6 Solid biomass represents the largest share of biomass used for heat and electricity generation, whereas liquid biofuel represents the largest source in the transport sector.7 (p See Figure 8.) The vast majority of biomass used for energy is derived locally, or at least domestically. There is also significant informal trade in solid biomass that occurs regionally and across national borders. However, international trade in biomass is rising rapidly. Wood pellets and wood chips, as well as fuel ethanol and biodiesel, all are now commonly traded in large volumes; in addition, some biomethane is traded in Europe through gas grids. Some shifts in trading patterns were observed in 2014. Wood pellets, for example, saw a dramatic shift in export routes. The largest international trade flows are from North America (the United States and Canada) to the European Union. In 2014, shipments of wood pellets from Canada to Europe declined to 2011 volumes, whereas Canadian shipments to Asia (notably South Korea) increased significantly.8 (RSee Figure 7 and Reference Table R3.) While the volume of wood pellets shipped to Asia is increasing, the primary supply for Asian markets continues to be sourced either domestically or from within the region—for example, South Korean imports from Vietnam.9 US fuel ethanol exports soared to 2.4 billion litres in 2014, up 37% over 2013 and representing 4% of US output.10 Factors behind this expansion included low production costs, which temporarily made US ethanol more cost-competitive; a saturated US national market; and rising demand for imports in new markets such as India, the Philippines, South Korea, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates.11 By contrast, Brazilian exports decreased 42% from 2013 for several reasons, including unfavourable exchange rates. The result was an increase in domestic ethanol sales.12 The volume of EU imports of (un-denaturedi ) ethanol dropped 3% to just under 600 million litres in 2014. Some ethanol passes through third states that are exempt from EU import duties (e.g., in Latin America) before entering the EU market.13 The European ethanol industry has begun to address this situation, and the European Commission and individual Member States (e.g., Sweden and the United Kingdom) have successfully closed several trade loopholes in recent years.14 Key countries that export to the European Union include Brazil, Peru, Guatemala, and the United States.15 Traditionally, the EU has represented the largest destination market for biodiesel. In 2014, however, the region’s imports reached an all-time low, at just over 1 million litres (down from an already small volume of 35.6 million litres in 2013).16 The decline is due to anti-dumping duties placed by the EU on imports from Argentina, Indonesia, and Malaysia, which have made imported biodiesel more expensive.17 Figure 7. Global Wood Pellet Trade Flows, 2014 The figure represents some major trade flows in wood pellets but is not exhaustive. There is also some documented trade within Europe (e.g., between Norway, Switzerland, and EU Member States) as well as among Asian countries. EU-28 EU-28 3,924 1,166 821 137 126 178 503 EU-28 South Korea Thousand Metric Tonnes Exporter Importer 2011 2012 2013 2014 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,0001,5001,0005000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 EU-28 EU-28 Japan and # Figure 7. Global Wood Pellet Trade Flows, 2014 United States Canada Russia Ukraine Belarus Bosnia and Her- zegovina Canada Source: See Endnote 8 for this section. i - Fuel ethanol labelled “denatured” has been rendered unfit for human consumption by the addition of a petroleum denaturant, typically pentanes plus or conventional motor petrol blending components. Fuel ethanol usually is denatured prior to transport from the ethanol production facility. 5001,0001,5002,000 2,5003,0003,5004,000

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