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GSR 2015

210 ENDNOTES 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS – SOLAR THERMAL HEATING AND COOLING 64 See, for example, SolarWall, “SolarWall® Solar Air Heating and Ventilation Systems,” http://solarwall.com/en/products/solarwall- air-heating.php, viewed 19 March 2015; and “Solar Air Heat,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_air_heat, viewed 3 May 2015. 65 Solar Air Heating World Industries Association (SAHWIA), “Building-Integrated Solar Air Heating Systems Hit Milestone,” press release (Washington, DC: 18 April 2014), http://sahwia. org/building-integrated-solar-air-heating-systems-hit-milestone/. Note that these systems typically reduce 20–30% of conventional energy required for heating buildings, from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 12, p. 40. 66 Globally, 76.7 MWth (109,571 m2 ) of air collector capacity was added in 2013, and there was an estimated 1,187 MWth (1,695,560 m2 ) of unglazed air collectors and 481 MWth (686,516 m2 ) of glazed air collectors, for a total of 1,668 MWth (2,382,076 m2 ) at end- 2013, or 0.4% of total solar thermal collector area, from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1, and from Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. 67 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. 68 Largest markets from Mauthner, op. cit. note 1; production flat from Bärbel Epp and Stephanie Banse, “Extreme Weather,” Sun & Wind Energy, October 2014, pp. 26–41. Solar space heating with air collectors is not common in Europe, per Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 12, p. 40. 69 Mauthner, op. cit. note 12. 70 Franz Mauthner, AEE-INTEC, personal communications with REN21, March–May 2014. Cooling systems include one-stage absorption chillers, adsorption chillers, and desiccant cooling systems (DEC) systems for thermal cooling. 71 With such systems, pressurised water, steam, or thermo-oil can be used as a heat transfer medium, from ibid. 72 Other heat sources from Jan-Olof Dalenbäck and Sven Werner, CIT Energy Management AB, Market for Solar District Heating, supported by Intelligent Energy Europe (Gothenburg, Sweden: revised July 2012), http://www.solar-district-heating.eu/Portals/0/ SDH-WP2-D2-3-Market-Aug2012.pdf; Diarmaid Williams, “Solar- district Heating Plant Opens in Denmark,” COSPP, 6 February 2015, http://www.cospp.com/articles/2015/02/solar-district- heating-plant-opens-in-denmark.html; Eva Augsten, “Denmark: Combined CSP and Flat Plate Collector System Supplies Solar District Heating,” Solar Thermal World, 30 January 2015, http:// solarthermalworld.org/content/denmark-combined-csp-and- flat-plate-collector-system-supplies-solar-district-heating; “The First Solar District Heating Plant in France is in Operation,” and “International Workshop on Solar District Heating in Italy,” SDH Newsletter (Solar District Heating), December 2014, http://www.solar-district-heating.eu/NewsEvents/Newsletters/ No13December2014.aspx. Plants with seasonal storage from, for example, Bärbel Epp, “Denmark: 37 MW Field with 203,000 m3 Storage Underway,” Solar Thermal World, 30 August 2014, http:// solarthermalworld.org/content/denmark-37-mw-field-203000- m3-storage-underway; Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 12, p. 36; Eva Augsten, “Denmark: 23 MWth Cover 55% of Heat Demand of 1,500 Households,” Solar Thermal World, 28 July 2014, http:// solarthermalworld.org/content/denmark-23-mwth-cover-55-heat- demand-1500-households; “South Korean R&D Project Focuses on the First Solar District Heating System with Seasonal Heat Storage,” SDH Newsletter (Solar District Heating), December 2014, http://www.solar-district-heating.eu/NewsEvents/Newsletters/ No13December2014.aspx. 73 Northern Europe from Solar District Heating (SDH), Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union, “Solar District Heating,” http://www.solar-district-heating.eu/SDH.aspx, viewed 6 March 2014; and based on data from Jan-Olof Dalenbäck, Solar Energy Association of Sweden and Chalmers University of Technology, personal communications with REN21, March–May 2015. Movement south from “The First Solar District Heating Plant in France Is in Operation,” and “International Workshop on Solar District Heating in Italy,” op. cit. note 72 (the first solar district heating plant in France (near Toulouse) began operation in 2014, in combination with a biomass boiler); and from “First Italian Solar District Heating Plant on Its Way,” SDH Newsletter, October 2014, http://www.solar-district-heating.eu/NewsEvents/Newsletters/ No12October2014.aspx. 74 Other regions from the following: Natural Resources Canada, “Canadian Solar Community Sets New World Record for Energy Efficiency and Innovation,” press release (Okotoks, Alberta: 5 October 2012), http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/media-room/news- release/2012/2143; Canada also from “Solar Community Tops World Record,” Solar Update (IEA-SHC), January 2013, p. 16, https://www.iea-shc.org/data/sites/1/publications/2013-01- SolarUpdate.pdf, and from Government of Canada, “Drake Landing Solar Community,” brochure, www.dlsc.ca/DLSC_Brochure_e. pdf, viewed 29 April 2014; China’s “Utopia Garden” project in Dezhou covers 10 blocks of apartment buildings with 5.025 m2 combined with seasonal storage beneath the complex, per Bärbel Epp, “China: Utopia Garden Sets New Standard for Architectural Integration,” Solar Thermal World, 10 April 2012, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/china-utopia-garden-sets- new-standard-architectural-integration; the University of Pretoria’s 672 m2 solar thermal system provides warm water for apartments for 550 students, per Stephanie Banse, “South Africa: University of Pretoria’s 672 m2 Solar Thermal System,” Solar Thermal World, 12 April 2012, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/china-utopia- garden-sets-new-standard-architectural-integration. Plans also are under way for South Korea’s first district heating system with seasonal storage, from “South Korean R&D Project Focuses on the First Solar District Heating System with Seasonal Heat Storage,” SDH Newsletter (Solar District Heating), December 2014, http://www.solar-district-heating.eu/NewsEvents/Newsletters/ No13December2014.aspx. 75 Dalenbäck, op. cit. note 73. 76 Jan-Olof Dalenbäck, “An Emerging Option: Solar District Heating and Cooling,” Euro Heat & Power, vol. 10, no. (2013), pp. 26–29; Dalenbäck, op. cit. note 73. 77 Plants in Denmark from Dalenbäck, op. cit. note 73. Drivers from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 12, p. 37. Cost-competitive in Denmark only, from Bärbel Epp, solrico, personal communication with REN21, 29 April 2014; large-scale solar thermal systems are cost-competitive relative to natural gas-drive combined heat and power systems in many cases in Denmark, from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 12, p. 37. Costs have come down considerably in the past five years, and, in Denmark, the heat price from solar thermal is as low as USD 42.7/MWh (EUR 31/MWh), below that of gas-fired district heating, due to the large size of fields and low interest rates over the expected lifetime of at least 20 years, per Søren Elisiussen, Arcon, cited in Bärbel Epp, “Denmark: ‘We Have Improved the Cost/Performance Ratio by Around 50 % over the Last 5 Years’,” Solar Thermal World, 4 March 2014, http:// solarthermalworld.org/content/denmark-we-have-improved- costperformance-ratio-around-50-over-last-5-years. See also Bärbel Epp, “Germany/Denmark: Solar District Heating Prices Between 37 and 88 EUR/MWh,” Solar Thermal World, 24 March 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/germanydenmark- solar-district-heating-prices-between-37-and-88-eurmwh. 78 Dalenbäck, op. cit. note 73. This was up from 50 plants with 389,000 m2 or 272 MWth at end 2013, from idem. 79 Ibid. 80 Enlargement of Vojens and total capacity from Ibid. The Vojens plant was originally constructed in 2012 with 17,500 m2 and was extended to a total of 70,000 m2 (49 MWth) in 2014/early 2015, with seasonal water storage totalling 200,000 m3 , from idem. Other enlarged systems include: the Marstal (Denmark) solar district heat network and storage system, from Eva Augsten, “Denmark: 23 MWth Cover 55% of Heat Demand of 1,500 Households,” Solar Thermal World, 28 July 2014, http://solarthermalworld. org/content/denmark-23-mwth-cover-55-heat-demand-1500- households; and Austria’s largest solar thermal plant, in Graz, which was first commissioned in 2008 and extended in 2014, from Robert Soell, S.O.L.I.D., Austria, “SDH in Graz: Status Quo and Future Potential,” SDH International Workshop IT 2014, 25 November 2014, Milan, Italy (Session 2), and from S.O.L.I.D. cited in “Austria’s Largest Solar Thermal Plant Is Extended – 4 Different Large Collectors Will Be Compared on a Test Field,” SDH Newsletter, October 2014, http://www.solar-district-heating.eu/ NewsEvents/Newsletters/No12October2014.aspx. 81 Uli Jakob, Green Chiller Verband für Sorptionskälte e.V., personal communication with REN21, 22 April 2015; Uli Jakob, “Solar Air-Conditioning in Europe,” presentation for Chinese Solar Cooling Conference, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, 27 March 2015, slides 16, 21. These were mostly commercial- scale demonstration systems, from Mike Dennis, “Reducing Air Conditioner Impacts: The State of Solar Cooling,” ReNew, Issue 130, Sustainable Cooling Issue, January–March 2015, pp. 46–50. Note that roughly 600 solar cooling systems were installed worldwide in 2010, per Hans-Martin Henning, “Solar Air-conditioning and Refrigeration—Achievements and Challenges,” Conference Proceedings of International Conference on Solar Heating, Cooling and Buildings—EuroSun 2010, Graz, Austria, 2010, http://solarthermalworld.org/sites/gstec/files/ BACK

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