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GSR 2015

53 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT HYDROPOWER ■■ HYDROPOWER MARKETS An estimated 37 GW of hydropower capacity was commissioned in2014,increasingtotalglobalcapacityby3.6%toapproximately 1,055 GW.i 1 The top countries for hydropower capacity and generation remained China, Brazil, the United States, Canadaii , Russia, and India, which together accounted for about 60% of global installed capacity at the end of 2014.2 (R See Figure 14 and Reference Table R6.) Global hydropower generation, which varies each year with hydrological conditions, was estimated at 3,900 TWh in 2014, an increase of more than 3% from 2013.3 Hydropower generation declined in many countries due to droughts, but it recovered significantly in China following a drop in 2013. Global pumped storage capacity was estimated to be as high as 142 GW at year’s end.4 A significant portion of new capacity in 2014 was installed in China; substantial additional capacity also was commissioned by Brazil, Canada, Turkey, India, and Russia.5 (p See Figure 15.) China commissioned almost 22 GW for a year-end total of 280 GW. Despite the significant increase in capacity from new completions, China’s additions were down 29% relative to 2013.6 Hydropower generation in China increased by almost 20%, due to better hydrological conditions, exceeding 1,000 TWh for the first time (at 1,070 TWh).7 The Xiluodu plant (13.86 GW), which started operations with two-thirds of its full capacity in 2013, was completed in 2014, becoming the third largest hydropower plant in the world after China’s Three Gorges and Brazil’s Itaipu.8 Downstream from Xiluodu on the Jinsha River, the 6.4 GW Xiangjiaba plant came on line, becoming China’s third largest hydropower plant.9 It houses eight 800 MW turbines, which are the highest capacity hydro units in the world.10 In addition, the last generating units of the 5.85 GW Huaneng Nuozhadu station were put into service in June, making it the fourth largest hydropower facility in China.11 Investment in the country’s hydropower infrastructure was USD 15.6 billion (CNY 96 billion) for the year, down 21.5% from 2013.12 Brazil added 3.3 GW in 2014, including 138 MW of small-scaleiii hydro (<30 MW) capacity, for a year-end total of 89.2 GW.13 Brazil’s hydropower output (393 TWh in 2014) has been severely affected by prolonged droughts, with some reservoirs at all-time lows in 2014.14 Despite annual increases in generating capacity, the share of hydropower in total generation dropped from 91% in 2011 to 73% in 2014.15 At the Madeira River complex, the Jirau plant (the largest single renewable energy Clean Development Mechanism project) saw 24 of its 75 MW turbines in commercial operation by the end of 2014; this will be a 3.75 GW facility when completed.16 Jirau and its sister plant Santo Antonio (3.57 GW when completed), also along the Madeira River, were ordered to revisit their environmental impact assessments in 2014 following floods in upstream Bolivia after heavy rains.17 Neighbouring Colombia completed the 820 MW Sogamoso hydropower plant, which is expected to supply 10% of the country’s power needs.18 Another country where hydropower generation has suffered due to drought is the United States. In 2014, the country experienced its third consecutive year of decline in output, with generation of 259 TWh, and a drop of 5.3% relative to the annual average over the preceding nine years.19 The United States had 79.2 GW of hydropower capacity at year-end.20 Third for new installations was Canada, which completed 1.7 GW of new hydropower capacity in 2014, raising its total generating stock to 77.4 GW.21 However, output dropped by 3.1% to 375 TWh.22 By early 2015, Ontario’s Lower Mattagami River redevelopment project was completed, almost doubling capacity to 924 MW at four generating units.23 The 195 MW Forrest Kerr facility came on line in British Columbia in 2014.24 Both projects are notable, among others, for being developed in co-operation with aboriginal First Nations people, whose native lands are affected by reservoir development. Such partnerships are becoming quite frequent for new hydropower development in Canada.25 Turkey added 1.35 GW of hydropower capacity in 2014, for a total of 23.6 GW. Hydropower generated 40.1 TWh during the year, representing a 32% decline from 2013, and the result of drought in recent years.26 India added about 1.2 GW of capacity in 2014, 228 MW of which was classified as small-scale hydro (<25 MW per facility), bringing the country’s total capacity to 44.9 GW. Annual generation was estimated at 144 TWh; generation from large hydropower facilities (>25 MW) was 131 TWh, which is virtually unchanged from 2013.27 The 240 MW Uri II project was completed in early 2014 after experiencing technical difficulties during commissioning, including limited water availability.28 In Russia, net capacity additions in 2014 were 1.1 GW, increasing installed capacity to 47.7 GW. Even as capacity rose, hydropower generation (164 TWh) declined 4.4% from the previous year.29 The last of ten 640 MW turbines was installed at the Sayano- Shushenskaya facility (6.4 GW) in late 2014, finally completing the restoration of the plant, which suffered a severe accident in 2009.30 At the Boguchanskaya plant, the last of nine 333 MW units was commissioned; the station is expected to reach its full capacity of 3 GW once its reservoir is full later in 2015.31 The Grand Renaissance project (6 GW when completed) on the Abbay River (Blue Nile) in Ethiopia continued to advance in 2014. However, downstream neighbours have raised concerns about the project’s impact. In 2014, Ethiopia, Egypt, and Sudan agreed to jointly carry out further studies on the project, and in early 2015, they issued a joint Declaration of Principles for co-operation on the sustainable and fair use of the Nile Basin water resources.32 Elsewhere in Africa, Rwanda brought on line its new Nyaborongo plant (28 MW). While relatively small in the global context, the facility is significant for this nation of 11.8 million people. This project increased Rwanda’s power capacity by 25% and is expected to reduce electricity deficits in a country where only 19% of the population had access to electricity in late 2014.33 Even smaller was Rwanda’s 2.2 MW Rukarara 2 hydropower i - Global data reflect an upwards adjustment of 18 GW to year-end 2013 capacity noted in GSR 2014. Unless otherwise specified, all capacity numbers exclude pure pumped storage capacity if possible. Pumped hydro plants are not energy sources but means of energy storage. As such, they involve conversion losses and are powered by renewable and/or non-renewable electricity. Pumped storage plays an important role in balancing power, in particular for variable renewable resources. ii - Despite slightly lower total capacity, Canada’s baseloaded output exceeds the more load-following output in the United States. iii - Brazil reports hydropower capacity separately by size category, at the threshold of 30 MW. India does the same, at the threshold of 25 MW.

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