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GSR 2015

220 ENDNOTES 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS – WIND POWER hundreds of jobs and closed operations in several states; there were also US plant closures or job reductions made by Gamesa (Spain), Nordex (Germany), Suzlon (India), Acciona (Spain), from Ros Davidson, “Analysis: US Manufacturing Hit Despite Capacity Increase,” Wind Power Monthly, 10 November 2014, http://www.windpowermonthly.com/article/1321137/ analysis-us-manufacturing-hit-despite-capacity-increase; Jack Bramwell, “GE Shutting Down Wind Manufacturing in Tehachapi,” Bakersfieldcalifornian.com, 22 October 2014, http:// www.bakersfield.com/news/2014/10/22/ge-shutting-down- wind-manufacturing-in-tehachapi.html. See also Wiser et al., op. cit. note 93, pp. v–vi. The United States has more than 500 manufacturing facilities in 43 states, per AWEA, op. cit. note 41. By early 2015, Vestas was ramping up production with a new blade factory in Colorado that will be hiring 400 new staff, from “Vestas Hiring 400 as US Surges,” reNEWS, 13 March 2015, http://renews. biz/85650/vestas-hiring-400-as-us-surges/. 111 Sawyer, op. cit. note 48. 112 Vanessa Dezem, “Suzlon to Build First Wind Plant in Latin America,” Bloomberg, 17 July 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/ news/2014-07-17/suzlon-to-build-first-wind-plant-in-latin-america. html; James Quilter, “Alstom Opens Third Factory in Brazil,” Wind Power Monthly, 2 February 2015, http://www.windpowermonthly. com/article/1332029/alstom-opens-third-factorty-brazil; and Elizabeth Trovall, “What’s Hampering Brazil’s Wind Sector?” bnamericas.com, 3 February 2015, http://www.bnamericas. com/news/electricpower/whats-hampering-brazils-wind-sector. The company, JV Torres Eólicas do Nordeste, will be located in Jacobina, Bahia state, and will produce steel towers for wind turbines, from Trovall, op. cit. this note. There are plans to produce up to 200 towers annually. Alstom’s other plants in Brazil are a nacelle factory in Bahia and a tower plant in Rio Grande do Sul, which opened in 2011 and 2013, respectively, from Quilter, op. cit. this note. 113 Feng Zhao, FTI Consulting, Copenhagen, personal communication with REN21, 13 April 2015; Vestas plans to start production in May 2015 of blades for a wind farm in Liverpool Bay, from “Isle of Wight Wind Turbine Firm Vestas Creates 200 Jobs,” BBC News, 5 February 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/ uk-england-hampshire-31145066. 114 Restructuring from EurObserv’ER, op. cit. note 1, p. 14. 115 Mercom Capital Group, “Wind Sector Acquisition Activity Ramps Up, Project Acquisitions Double to $13 Billion in 2014, Reports Mercom Capital Group,” http://mercomcapital.com/wind-sector- acquisition-activity-ramps-up-project-acquisitions-double-to- $13-billion-in-2014-reports-mercom-capital-group, viewed 13 February 2015. 116 Ibid. 117 MHI Vestas Offshore Wind, “MHI Vestas Offshore Wind Receives Breakthrough First Order for the V164-8.0 MW,” press release (Aarhus, Denmark: 19 December 2014), http://www. mhivestasoffshore.com/media-and-news/news/2014/19-12-2014; GE and Alstom from FTI Consulting, “Record Year for the Global Top 10 Turbine OEMs,” press release (London: 23 February 2015), http://www.fticonsulting.com/global2/press-releases/ united-states/record-year-global-top-10-turbine-oems.aspx; Areva, “Areva and Gamesa Signed Binding Agreements for the Creation of a Global Leader in the Offshore Wind Segment,” press release (France: 7 July 2014), http://www.areva.com/EN/ news-10257/areva-and-gamesa-signed-binding-agreements-for- the-creation-of-a-global-leader-in-the-offshore-wind-segment. html; Areva, “Gamesa and Areva Create the Joint-Venture Adwen,” press release (France: 9 March 2015), http://www.areva.com/ EN/news-10478/gamesa-and-areva-create-the-jointventure- adwen.html; Areva and Gamesa formed a joint venture in summer of 2014 and a new name was created in 2015 from Zhao, op. cit. note 113; Senvion from James Quilter, “Suzlon Sells Senvion in €1bn Cash Deal,” Wind Power Monthly, 22 January 2015, http://www.windpowermonthly.com/article/1330456/ suzlon-sells-senvion-%e2%82%ac1bn-cash-deal. 118 Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1; Justin Martino, “Advancements in Wind Turbine Technology: Improving Efficiency and Reducing Cost,” Power Engineering, 14 March 2014, http://www.power-eng.com/ articles/print/volume-118/issue-3/features/advancements-in- wind-turbine-technology-improving-efficiency-and-reducing- cost.html. With the market picking up in China, for example, manufacturers are increasing their focus on better quality turbines with enhanced performance and that are adapted to varied wind and environment conditions, including low speed, typhoon, high altitude, and offshore, from Yang Jianxiang, “Curtailment Solutions Boost Confidence in China,” Wind Power Monthly, 30 September 2014, http://www.windpowermonthly.com/article/1314288/ curtailment-solutions-boost-confidence-china. Advances to reach stronger winds include, for example, concrete-steel hybrid towers with hub heights greater than 140 metres are popular in many European markets; Siemens and Lagerwey have developed alternative bolted steel towers; GE introduced in 2014 a five-legged tower with 139-metre hub height – the lattice type structure is covered by plastic fabric, all from Eize de Vries, “What’s New in Wind Technology?” Renewable Energy World, 10 July 2014, http:// www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/07/ whats-new-in-wind-technology?. 119 Martino, op. cit. note 118. 120 Navigant Research, “Global Wind Turbine Manufacturing Capacity Has Far Surpassed Demand,” 8 December 2014, http:// www.navigantresearch.com/newsroom/global-wind-turbine- manufacturing-capacity-has-far-surpassed-demand; Navigant Research, “Longer Blades and New Materials Are Dramatically Affecting the Global Wind Turbine Manufacturing Industry,” press release (Boulder, CO: 27 February 2015), https://www. navigantresearch.com/newsroom/longer-blades-and-new- materials-are-dramatically-affecting-the-global-wind-turbine- manufacturing-industry; 2014 saw further development of hybrid materials, combining properties of carbon and glass fibre for lighter blades, and design and production of long blades in segments to ease transport and installation, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. xiii. 121 Navigant Research, “Longer Blades and New Materials…,” op. cit. note 120. 122 Martino, op. cit. note 118; Europe and China from Sawyer, op. cit. note 11; and from Corbetta, op. cit. note 30. 123 Goldwind launched new low-wind turbines, from Jianxiang Yang, “Goldwind Launches Low-wind Turbines,” Wind Power Monthly, 24 October 2014, http://www.windpowermonthly.com/ article/1318725/goldwind-launches-low-wind-turbines; GE launched a new 2.2 MW turbine with integrated wind farm wake management software, as well as a “blade extension” solution to increase the rotor diameter of its 1.5 MW SLE turbines, from de Vries, op. cit. note 118; GE also launched its 1.7-103 low wind speed turbine developed in India, from Sanjay Jog, “GE Launches 1.7-103 Turbine to Tap Low Wind Site Potential,” Business Standard, 5 April 2014, http://www.business-standard.com/article/ companies/ge-launches-turbine-to-tap-low-wind-site-potential- in-india-114040400847_1.html; and in early 2014, GE launched a new turbine designed specifically for Japanese conditions, from Chisaki Watanabe, “GE Develops 2.85-Megawatt Turbine for Conditions in Japan,” Business Week, 24 February 2014, http:// www.businessweek.com/news/2014-02-24/ge-develops-2-dot- 85-megawatt-wind-turbine-for-conditions-in-japan. 124 In 2014, the average size delivered to market was 1,981 kW, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. xiii. Average size delivered to market (based on measured rated capacity) was 1,926 kW in 2013, from Navigant Research, World Market Update 2013: International Wind Energy Development. Forecast 2014-2018 (Copenhagen: March 2014), Executive Summary. 125 In 2014, the averages were 2,863 kW in Germany; 2,062 kW in Brazil; 2,065 kW in Canada; 1,966 kW in the United States; 1,768 kW in China; and 1,469 kW in India, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 102. Germany’s onshore average in 2014 was 2,690 MW and offshore average was 3.7 MW, from Deutsche WindGuard, op. cit. note 35; Germany’s average installed power onshore increased from 2.6 MW in 2013 to 2.7 MW in 2014, and offshore average was 4.4 MW in 2014, from Ender, op. cit. note 32, pp. 26–37, http://www.dewi.de/dewi_res/fileadmin/pdf/publications/ Magazin_46/05.pdf. In 2013, the average sizes were 2.7 MW in Germany; 1,841 kW in the United States, 1,719 kW in China, and 1,336 kW in India, from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 124; 2.6 MW in Germany from C. Ender, “Wind Energy Use in Germany— Status 31.12.2013,” DEWI Magazin, February 2014, p. 43, http:// www.dewi.de/dewi/fileadmin/pdf/publications/Magazin_44/07. pdf. 126 Figures for 2014 from EWEA, The European Offshore Wind Industry – Key Trends and Statistics 2014 op. cit. note 25, p. 3. The average size of turbines installed offshore in Europe was about 0.5 MW in 1994, 2.4 MW in 2004, and 2.6 MW in 2009 based on data estimated from Figure 23 in idem. In 2013, the average size was about 4 MW, from EWEA, The European Offshore Wind Industry – Key Trends and Statistics 2013, op. cit. note 25, p. 9; and fell from 3,793 kW in 2012 to 3,613 kW in 2013, per Navigant Research, op. cit. note 124. BACK

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