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GSR 2015

190 Documents/Biofuels_draft_2_SmWithCover.pdf. 122 F.O. Licht, op. cit. note 68; Sapp, op. cit. note 14. 123 F.O. Licht, op. cit. note 68. 124 Esa Bakkilainen, Katja Kuparinen, and Jussi Heinimo, “Large Industrial Users of Energy Biomass” (Paris: IEA Bioenergy Task 40, 2013). Other major U.S. players include POET, Valero Energy Corporation, Green Plains Renewable Energy, and Flint Hills Resources LP; Sabina Zawadzski, “Novozymes Looks Beyond the ‘Fantasy Fuel’ It Helped to Turn Into Reality,” Reuters, 8 October 2014, Other major fuel ethanol producers in Brazil include Raizen and Biosev, from Brazilian Ministry of External Relations, Division for New and Renewable Energy Resources, personal communication with REN21, April 2015; EurObserv’ER, Biofuels Barometer, July 2014, p. 12; other major European fuel ethanol producers include French Tereos and German Crop Energies. China from Amanda Zhang Miao, op. cit. note 26; other major fuel ethanol producers in China include: Shandong Lonlive Bio-technology, BBCA Group, Heilongjiang Huarun Alcohol Col, Ltd., and small companies. 125 UNCTAD, op. cit. note 22. 126 Hamelinck, op. cit. note 84. 127 “USA Plants,” Biodiesel Magazine, 10 March 2015, http://www. Other major biodiesel production in the United States is by Imperium Grays Harbor in Washington and Green Earth Fuels in Texas. 128 Observ’ER, Biofuels Barometer, 2014; http://www.energies- Other major European biodiesel producers in 2014 were Finnish Neste Oil and Swiss Biopetrol Industries. 129 Asian information from UNCTAD, op. cit. note 22. For more US and European information, see endnote 97. 130 National Biodiesel Board, “Biodiesel Producers Hit Hard by Policy Uncertainty,” press release (Washington, DC: 14 May 2014), biodiesel-producers-hit-hard-by-policy-uncertainty. 131 Kopetz and Kummamuru, op. cit. note 84; Hamelinck, op. cit. note 84; Bravo, op. cit. note 84. 132 China from Amanda Zhang Miao, op. cit. note 26. Australian production is led by Australian Renewable Fuels, which controls 70% of biodiesel production in the country. APAC Biofuel Consultants, Australian Biofuels 2014-15 (Adelaide, South Australia: 2014). 133 Kopetz and Kummamuru, op. cit. note 84; Hamelinck, op. cit. note 84. 134 The POET-DSM plant is expected to produce 20 million gallons/ year (about 75.7 million litres), the DuPont plant is expected to produce 30 million gallons/year (about 113.6 million litres), and the Abengoa plant has an estimated annual production capacity of 25 million gallons (about 94.6 million litres). 135 The GranBio commercial cellulosic ethanol plant has a capacity of 82 million litres per year, the Raizen/Iogens plant has a capacity of 38 million litres (10 million gallons) per year, and the Solazyme-Bunges plant in Moema is a 100,000 tonne renewable oil production facility. Lane, op. cit. note 67. 136 Dawn McCarty and Justin Doom, “Khosla-Backed Biofuel Firm Kior Files Bankruptcy Plans Sale,” Renewable Energy World, 10 November 2014, http://www. khosla-backed-biofuel-firm-kior-files-bankruptcy-plans-sale. 137 EU-wide supports from Kopetz and Kummamuru, op. cit. note 84; national targets from Jim Lane, “Biofuels Mandates Around the World: 2015,” Biofuels Digest, 31 December 2014, biofuels-mandates-around-the-world-2015. 138 In Norway, Statoil Aviation began regular deliveries (2.5 million gallons/year, or about 9.5 million litres) of jet fuels based on 50% biofuels (initially from cooking oil, and later forest-based production) to the Oslo airport. In Sweden, Karlstad Airport began to offer regular supply of biofuel to all departing aircraft, per Jim Lane, “First Commercial Biofuels Flight from Sweden, as Karlstad Airport Installs Biofuels Storage Capacity, Teams with SkyNRG, British Midland,” Biofuels Digest, 26 June 2014; Southwest Airlines signed a contract to purchase renewable jet fuel made using forest residues starting in 2016, per Southwest Airlines, “Southwest Airlines Announces Purchase Agreement with Red Rocks Biofuels,” press release (Dallas, TX: 1 October 2014), Purchase-Agreement-Red-Rocks-Biofuels. 139 Norwegian Air Shuttle and SAS began their first biofuel flights in November, per “Norway to Have the World’s First Biofuel Airport,” The Nordic Page, 19 November 2014, economy/4702-norway-to-have-the-worlds-first-fixed-biofuel- airport. In Brazil, the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials certified Amyris’ first production facility for farnesane (a recently approved renewable jet fuel sourced from sugar cane), and the industry flew its first commercial flight using the fuel; see Amyris Inc. “Total, Amyris Biojet Fuel Ready for Use in Commercial Aviation,” press release (Emeryville, CA: 16 June 2014). 140 Charles Pauka, “World’s First Flight with ‘Green Diesel’ as Aviation Biofuel,” Transport and Logistics News, 4 December 2014, worlds-first-flight-green-diesel-aviation-biofuel/. 141 Adam Rose, “Boeing and Chinese Partner to Make Jet Fuel from ‘Gutter Oil’,” Reuters, 23 October 2014, wen/72363. 142 Prządka and Kovacs, op. cit. note 25. 143 Observ’ER, op. cit. note 53. 144 Biogas growth in the Czech Republic is expected to decline moving forward as the country phases out its support scheme for renewable energy, per Prządka and Kovacs, op. cit. note 25. 145 Ibid. 146 Ibid. 147 Prządka, op. cit. note 53. 148 Prządka and Kovacs, op. cit. note 25. 149 Patrick Serfass, American Biogas Association, “State of the US Biogas Industry,” presentation, pdf/ABC-StateoftheInd-BiocyclePolicyPres.pdf. 150 IEA Bioenergy Task 37, op. cit. note 56. 151 Amanda Zhang Miao, op. cit. note 26. Conversion to TWh done based on 1 m3 biogas containing the equivalent of 6 kWh calorific energy (both electricity and heat). In a typical biogas powered electric generator, only 2 kWh of useable electricity are produced, the rest is turned into heat, which is also useable. Based on Electrigaz, “Biogas FAQ,”, viewed May 2015. 152 Family biogas digesters from Bhattacharya, op. cit. note 43; Government of India, MNRE, ”Production of Bio-Compressed Natural Gas,“ press release, 24 July 2014, pmreleases.aspx?mincode=28. 153 IEA Bioenergy Task 37, op. cit. note 29. 154 Sapp, op. cit. note 14. 155 Ibid.; Charles Wachira, “Africa’s First Grid-Connected Biogas Plant to Start in Kenya,” Bloomberg, 4 February 2015, africa-s-first-grid-connected-biogas-plant-to-start-in-kenya. ENDNOTES 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS – BIOMASS ENERGY BACK

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