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GSR 2015 - Power Generation

87 04 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT 04 POLICY LANDSCAPE Renewable energy technologies have become mainstream sources of energy, supported by targets and policies. Most countries have enacted policies to regulate and promote renewables in the power generation, heating and cooling, and transport sectors, driven by the need to mitigate climate change, reduce dependence on imported fuels, develop more flexible and resilient energy systems, and create economic opportunity. As of early 2015, renewable energy support policies could be found in 145 countries. This number is up from 138 countries in 2014, and is over nine times higher than the 15 countries reported in GSR 2005.i 1 (p See Table 3 and Figures 28 and 29.) Adoption of new policies has slowed in recent years because the vast majority of countries already have adopted some form of renewable energy support. Policymakers have focused their attention on adapting existing policies to keep pace with rapidly changing costs and circumstances. Recent trends include merging of components from different policy mechanisms, a growing linkage of support between the electricity, heat, and transport sectors, and development of innovative mechanisms to integrate growing shares of renewables into the energy mix. Strategies to promote renewable energy also have continued to evolve and expand at the regional level. In 2014, the European Union established new regulations governing the energy sector beyond 2020, setting a region-wide goal of a 27% renewable energy share by 2030.2 Also in 2014, with the adoption of the Arab Renewable Energy Framework (AREF), the Arab League and its 22 member states joined other regions around the world—including the EU and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM)—in establishing a regional framework for renewable energy development and deployment.ii The AREF builds on the Pan-Arab Strategy for the Development of Renewable Energy Applications: 2010–2030, which was adopted in 2013.3 Targets for renewable energy deployment were identified in 164 countries as of early 2015, up from 144 countries in 2014.i The majority of targets focus on growth in specific sectors—power, heating and cooling, and transportation—although several countries have set economy-wide targets for renewable energy deployment. (R See subsequent sub-sections of the Policy Landscape section as well as Reference Tables R12–R18.) Examples of new or revised system-wide targets from 2014 include France’s target of 32% of final energy consumption from renewables by 2030, and Ukraine’s target of 11% renewables in the national energy mix by 2020.4 Many targets are being expressed within the process of establishing a specific policy mechanism or procurement framework. For example, the renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies at the state level in the United States mandate specific shares of renewable electricity (or capacity) to be reached. Renewable energy tendering mechanisms, which are gaining prominence around the globe, establish fixed capacity goals under the procurement process. This section highlights various policy types, such as mandates, incentives, and enabling mechanisms, that were added or revised in 2014 and early 2015 in the power, heating and cooling, and transport sectors. Developments related to each type of policy mechanism are described independently, although a variety of policies often are implemented in conjunction. This section does not attempt to assess or analyse the effectiveness of specific policy mechanisms. ■■ POWER GENERATION Targets and supporting policy tools to promote renewable energy for power generation continued to receive the majority of attention from policymakers, outpacing those set for the heating and cooling and transportation sectors. Targets remain the most prevalent indication of support to renewable energy in the power sector. The targets covered in this section were established in a variety of ways, including through energy policy frameworks, national energy planning documents, and official declarations by heads of state. Several countries added or revised power generation targets during 2014. Japan and Nicaragua both added new share targets. Japan’s fourth Basic Energy Plan, released in 2014, adopted a national electricity goal of 13.5% by 2020 and 20% by 2030, adding to the country’s other renewable energy targets.5 Nicaragua’s new Generation Expansion Plan targets a 90% renewable electricity share by 2027.6 In addition, Bolivia and Singapore added new renewable technology capacity targets. Bolivia set a goal of developing 160 MW of additional solar, wind, geothermal, and bio-power capacity over the next 10 years, while Singapore established its first renewable energy target, seeking to deploy 350 MW of solar PV by 2020.7 Seven jurisdictions revised or built on existing goals. Algeria revised its energy plan to adopt a slate of new renewable energy goals to be achieved by 2030.8 China adjusted its power i - All GSR estimates for numbers of countries with policies and targets are based on what was the best information available to REN21 at the time. ii - The League of Arab States includes Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, the Palestinian Territories, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

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