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GSR 2015

ENDNOTES 01 GLOBAL OVERVIEW 182 bio-power from Svensk Energi, “Elaret & Verksamheten 2014,” May 2015, Table 12.B, http://www.svenskenergi.se/Global/Statistik/ El%c3%a5ret/El%c3%a5ret%202014_slututg%c3%a5va.pdf; no geothermal or CSP capacity; and ocean energy capacity from OES, Annual Report 2013 (Lisbon: 2013), Table 6.1, p. 134, http:// www.ocean-energy-systems.org/index.php. Portugal based on wind power from GWEC, op. cit. note 11, and from EWEA, op. cit. note 35; solar PV from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 40; bio-power and ocean energy from Portuguese Directorate General for Energy and Geology (DGEG), provided by Susana Serodia, DGEG, personal communication with REN21, March 2015; geothermal from GEA, op. cit. note 11. 45 See Hydropower, Wind Power, and Solar Power texts in the Market and Industry Trends section. 46 Thailand from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 40; Philippines from Freddie G. Lazaro, “2014 Was Year of Wind Energy,” Manila Bulletin, 29 December 2014, http://www.mb.com.ph/2014-was-year-of-wind- energy/, from Iris Gonzales, “SEA’s Biggest Wind Farm Powers Luzon,” Philippine Star, 9 November 2014, https://ph.news. yahoo.com/sea-biggest-wind-farm-powers-000000102.html, and from GWEC, “Global Wind Statistics 2014,” 10 February 2015, http://www.gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/ GWEC_GlobalWindStats2014_FINAL_10.2.2015.pdf; Pakistan from idem. 47 Based on renewable energy accounting for 79% of new generating capacity in the EU, assuming 8 GW of solar PV added, from EWEA, op. cit. note 35; and on 6.3 GW of solar PV added in the EU, from Masson, op. cit. note 11. Germany data for 2010 from IRENA, “Renewable Energy Statistics in Germany,” December 2010, http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/ events/MarrakechMay2012/4_Martin_Schöpe.pdf; Germany data for 2014 from Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Germany 2014 (Berlin: February 2015), http://www.erneuerbare- energien.de/EE/Redaktion/DE/Downloads/development- of-renewable-energy-sources-in-germany-2014.pdf?__ blob=publicationFile&v=6; Scotland from “UK renewables hit 19% in 2014,” reNEWS, 26 March 2015, http://renews.biz/86211/ renewables-hit-19-2-in-2014-mix/. 48 EIA, Electric Power Monthly, 27 April 2015, http://www.eia.gov/ electricity/monthly/epm_table_grapher.cfm?t=epmt_1_01; Kenneth Bossong, “Non-Hydro Renewable Electricity Outshines All Other Sources and Grows 11 Percent in 2014,” Renewable Energy World, 6 March 2015, http://www.renewableenergyworld. com/rea/news/article/2015/03/non-hydro-renewable-electricity- outshines-all-other-sources-and-grows-11-percent-in-2014; Kenneth Bossong, “Renewables Beat Natural Gas, Provide Half of New US Generating Capacity in 2014,” Renewable Energy World, 4 February 2015, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/ article/2015/02/renewables-beat-natural-gas-provide-half-of- new-us-generating-capacity-in-2014. 49 ANEEL, “Resumo Geral dos Novos Empreendimentos de Geração” and “Resumo Geral das Usinas,” op. cit. note 41; GWEC, op. cit. note 11. 50 IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 40; Uruguay from Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 9 March 2015. 51 IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 40; GWEC, op. cit. note 11. 52 Kenya based on data in Geothermal Power and Heat text of Market and Industry Trends section; Rwanda from Maina Waruru, “East African Countries Move to Adopt Renewable Energy Technologies,” Renewable Energy World, 17 December 2014, http://www. renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/12/ east-african-countries-move-to-adopt-renewable-energy- technologies, from Ivan R. Mugisha, “Load Shedding to Decrease as Nyabarongo Hydropower Dam Is Finally Up and Running,” The New Times, 27 October 2014, http://www.newtimes. co.rw/section/article/2014-10-27/182402, and from Rwanda Energy, “Nyabarongo to Start Hydro Production in November,” 22 October 2014, http://www.rwandaenergy.com/2014/10/ nyabarongo-to-start-hydro-production-in-november. 53 Fereidoon P. Shioshani, Distributed Generation and Its Implications for the Utility Industry (Waltham, MA: Academic Press, June 2014). 54 Repositioning from Christoph Steitz, “RWE Takes Minority Stake in Conergy,” Reuters, 17 March 2015, http://www.reuters.com/ article/2015/03/17/rwe-conergy-idUSF9N0WF00320150317; “Vattenfall Plans Wind Splurge,” reNEWS, 2 May 2015, http:// renews.biz/83650/vattenfall-plans-wind-splurge/; EnBW, “Significant Changes in the Energy Industry Environment Require Significant Review,” March 2014, https://www.enbw.com/media/ konzern/docs/strategie/enbw-2020-stand-maerz-2014.pdf; Tino Andresen, “EON Banks on Renewables in Split from Conventional Power,” Bloomberg, 1 December 2014, http://www.bloomberg. com/news/articles/2014-11-30/eon-banks-on-renewables- with-plan-to-spin-off-conventional-power; decreasing fossil fuel investments from Paul Hockenos, “German Fossil Fuel Giant Jumps on Renewables Bandwagon,” Renewable Energy World, 3 December 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld. com/rea/news/article/2014/12/german-fossil-fuel-giant-jumps- on-renewables-bandwagon; Karl-Erik Stromsta, “Heavy RE Emphasis as Enel Plots the Next Five Years,” Recharge News, 20 March 2015, http://www.rechargenews.com/wind/1394982/ heavy-re-emphasis-as-enel-plots-next-five-years; acquiring other utilities from Mark Chediak and Ehren Goossens, “NextEra Hawaii’s Biggest Utility to Study Renewable Energy in the Island State,” Renewable Energy World, 4 December 2015, http://www. renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/12/nextera- buys-hawaiis-biggest-utility-to-study-renewable-energy-in-the- island-state. 55 Davide Savenije, “NY Regulators Issue Groundbreaking REV Order,” Utility Dive, 26 February 2015, http://www. utilitydive.com/news/ny-regulators-issue-groundbreaking- rev-order/369026/. In California, Assembly Bill (AB) 327 required that the state’s largest utilities develop new models for planning grid investments to accommodate distributed renewables, per Jeff St. John, “It’s Official: California Moves Grid Planning Toward the Edge,” Greentech Media, 15 August 2014, http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/ its-official-california-moves-grid-planning-toward-the-edge. 56 France and Spain, for example, are developing a transmission interconnection in order to better balance variable renewable energy, per Ilias Tsagas, “Spain’s Link to France Boosts Intermittent Power,” PV Magazine, 23 February 2015, http://www. pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/spains-link-to-france- boosts-intermittent-power_100018314/#axzz3SbYhUtyW; India moved forward with its USD 8 billion Green Corridor project to upgrade its grid to handle a doubling of renewable energy capacity by 2022, per Ganesh Nagarajan, “India Invites Bids for $8 Billion Renewable Grid Upgrade,” Bloomberg, 7 August 2014, http://www. bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-08-07/india-invites-bids-for- 8-billion-renewable-grid-upgrade; IRENA continues to support the “Clean Energy Corridor” to link East and Southern Africa, from Ethiopia to South Africa, from IRENA, Working Together to Build an East and Southern African Clean Energy Corridor (Abu Dhabi: September 2014), https://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/ Publications/Africa%20Clean%20Energy%20Corridor%20 brochure.pdf, and from D.A. Barber, “Africa’s Clean Energy Corridor Sparking Cross-border Cooperation,” Afkinsider, 9 May 2015, http://afkinsider.com/55209/africas-clean-energy-corridor- sparking-cross-border-cooperation/. 57 Sidebar 2 from the following sources: Arizona Public Service, APS 2014 Integrated Resource Plan (Phoenix, AZ: 2014), https://www. aps.com/library/resource%20alt/2014_IntegratedResourcePlan. pdf; for emerging markets, see, for example, Government of Kenya, Kenya National Climate Change Action Plan (Nairobi: 2013), http://cdkn.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Kenya- National-Climate-Change-Action-Plan.pdf; Ireland from EirGrid, “Background to Group Processing” (Dublin: 2011), http://www. eirgrid.com/customers/gridconnections/generatorconnections/ groupprocessing-gate1andgate2/, and from EirGrid, Eirgrid All-Island Grid Study (Dublin: 2008), http://www.eirgrid.com/ renewables/all-islandgridstudy/; better forecasting from Mark Ahlstrom et al., “Knowledge Is Power: Efficiently Integrating Wind Energy and Wind Forecasts,” Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE, vol. 11, no. 6 (2013), pp. 45–52; reductions in wholesale prices from, for example, Will Steggals, Robert Gross, and Philip Heptonstall, “Winds of Change: How High Wind Penetrations Will Affect Investment Incentives in the GB Electricity Sector,” Energy Policy, vol. 39, no. 3 (2011), pp. 1389–96; capacity payments from Serena Hesmondhalgh, Johannes Pfeifenberger, and David Robinson, Resource Adequacy and Renewable Energy in Competitive Wholesale Electricity Markets (Boston: Brattle Group, September 2010), http://www.brattle.com/system/ publications/pdfs/000/004/542/original/Resource_Adequacy_ and_Renewable_Energy_in_Comp_Wholesale_Elect_Markets_ Sep_2010.pdf?1378772112; “pay for performance” from FERC, “Order 755: Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets” (Washington, DC: 2011), http://www. ferc.gov/whats-new/comm-meet/2011/102011/E-28.pdf; German utilities from J. Keil, The German Energy Transition – Issues and Perspectives (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, American BACK

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