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GSR 2015

232 ENDNOTES 05 DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR ENERGY ACCESS 70 Ibid. 71 Ibid. 72 Partners for Euro-African Green Energy (PANGEA) and the Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE), “Partners for Euro-African Green Energy (PANGEA) and the Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE) Announce New Partnership to Support the Development of Decentralised Renewable Energy Systems,” press release (Brussels: 29 September 2014), fileadmin/DATA/Documents/02_News/2014-09-29_-_MoU_ PANGEA_ARE_-_Press_Release_-_FINAL.pdf. 73 IRENA, “What We Do,” aspx?PriMenuID=53&mnu=Pri, viewed 13 April; Philipp Wittrock, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ), personal communication with REN21, 10 April 2015. 74 U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), “Power Africa,” viewed 2 April 2015;; USAID, “Power Africa’s Beyond the Grid: Increasing Access through Small-Scale Energy Solutions,” powerafrica/beyond-the-grid, viewed 2 April 2015. 75 EnDev, “Energy Access for 12.9 Million People Accomplished,”, viewed 2 April 2015. 76 Wittrock, op. cit. note 73. 77 GACC, “Cookstove Technology,” technology-and-fuels/, viewed 2 April 2015. 78 Clean Energy Ministerial, Fact Sheet: Global Lighting and Energy Access Partnership (Seoul: 2014), http://www. FS_GLOBALLEAP_Dec2014.pdf. 79 A.T. Kearney, Inc., Serving the Low-Income Consumer: How to Tackle This Mostly Ignored Market (Chicago: 2007), documents/10192/314765/ServingLow-IncomeConsumer. pdf/343423c1-7053-45e8-8ab2-0d4b9cedb7a2. 80 IRENA, Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems: Status and Methodological Issues (Abu Dhabi: 2015), http://www. grid_Renewable_Systems_WP_2015.pdf; Giles Parkinson, “Solar Costs Will Fall Another 40% In 2 Years,” Clean Technica, 29 January 2015, solar-costs-will-fall-40-next-2-years-heres/. 81 Stephen Lacey, “Off-Grid Solar Companies Closed $64M in 2014: The Start of a Bigger Trend?” Greentech Media, 10 December 2014, off-grid-solar-firms-closed-64m-in-2014. 82 Bank of America, “Bank of America Exceeds $20 Billion Environmental Business Initiative,” press release (New York: 18 April 2013), environment/bank-america-exceeds-20-billion-environmental- business-initiative. 83 Persistent Energy Capital, “About Us,” January 2015, http://www. 84 REEEP, “Investment Accelerator,” investment-accelerator, viewed 2 April 2015. 85 “World Bank to Focus Future Investment on Clean Energy,” The Guardian (UK), 24 November 2014, http:// bank-to-focus-future-investment-on-clean-energy; World Bank, “World Bank Group Lending Grows to $11 Billion,” press release (Washington, DC: 9 September 2014), world-bank-group-climate-lending-grows-11-billion-fy14. 86 Fely V. Arriola, Regional and Sustainable Development Department, Asian Development Bank, Manila, personal communication with REN21, 13 March 2015. 87 Multilateral Investment Fund, “Our Strategy,” http://www.fomin. org/en-us/Home/About-MIF/Our-Strategy, viewed 2 April 2015. 88 African Development Bank Group, “Sustainable Energy Fund for Africa,” partnerships/sustainable-energy-fund-for-africa/, viewed 2 April 2015. 89 ISFD, “Islamic Development Bank and Development Partners Launch US$ 180 Million Renewable Energy Initiative for the Poor,” press release (Dakar: 3 June 2014), NewsandCalendar/ISFD-news/Pages/Islamic-Development-Bank- and-Development-Partners-Launch-US$-180-Million-Renewable- Energy-Initiative-for-the-Poor-.aspx. 90 KfW Development Bank, “KfW and DEG Increase Their New Commitments – Especially in Africa,” press release (Frankfurt: 23 April 2014), financing/KfW-Development-Bank/KfW-Entwicklungsbank_alt/ About-us/Pressemitteilungen/Pressemitteilungen- Details_197760.html. 91 Inter-American Development Bank, “IDEAS Contest,” www.iadb. org/ideas, viewed 2 April 2015. 92 Clean Energy Ministerial, op. cit. note 78. 93 Green Climate Fund, “Total Pledges Nearing USD 10.2 Billion,” press release (Seoul: 11 December 2014), http://www.gcfund. org/fileadmin/00_customer/documents/Press/release_ GCF_2014_12_10_austria_pledge.pdf. 94 Indiegogo, “Energy Access Practitioner Network Partnership,”, viewed 2 April 2015. 95 GVEP International, Annual Review 2014, Accelerating Access to Energy (London: 2014), default/files/gvep_anuual_review_2014_w.pdf; EarthSpark International, “ENÈJI PWÒP Launches Retailer Training Program,” 2 April 2014, enji-pwp-launches-retailer-training-program. 96 Edward Vine, “An International Survey of the Energy Service Company (ESCO) Industry,” Energy Policy, vol. 33 (2005), pp. 691–704. 97 Samson Tolessa, Emerging Diffusion and Business Models for Stand-Alone PV, presentation at the Africa Electrification Initiative (AEI) Practitioner Workshop, Dakar, Senegal, 14–16 November 2011. 98 BBOXX Academy, “Training and Improving Our Staff,” http://www., 16 October 2014. 99 Tolessa, op. cit. note 97. 100 UNDP, Bringing Small-Scale Finance to the Poor for Modern Energy Services: What Is the Role of Government? (New York: 2009), environment-energy/sustainable_energy/bringing_small-scalefi nancetothepoorformodernenergyservices.html; SEEP Network, Using Microfinance to Expand Access to Energy Services: Summary of Findings (Arlington, VA: 2007), pubs/Energy_Summary_FINAL.pdf; P.S.C. Rao et al., “Energy- Microfinance Intervention for Below Poverty Line Households in India,” Energy Policy, vol. 37 (2009), pp. 1694–1712. 101 Arc Finance, “Renewable Energy Microfinance and Microenterprise Program (REMMP): Improving Access to Modern Energy Services in Underserved Communities,” http://arcfinance. org/projects/remmp/, viewed 2 April 2015; IDCOL website, www., viewed 23 February 2015. 102 Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP), Access to Energy via Digital Finance: Overview of Models and Prospects for Innovation (Washington, DC: 2014), DigitallyFinancedEnergy%20_FINAL.pdf. 103 Meier, op. cit. note 46. 104 M-KOPA Solar, “Kenya Emerges as Solar PV Hot Spot,” http:// spot/, 3 February 2015; Angaza, “PAYG-Ready Products,” http://, viewed 2 April 2015. 105 Sidebar 9 from the following sources: Uganda from Kabarole Research and Resource Centre, A Case Study: Gender and Workload in Biogas Adoption, report prepared for HIVOS, SNV, and Heifer International (Fort Portal, Uganda: June 2013), publications/a-case-study-gender-and-workload-in-biogas- adoption-uganda; Sri Lanka from Sarvodaya, Colombo, Sri Lanka, provided by Frank Wouters, Wouters, Ltd., personal communication with REN21, 14 April 2015; East Africa from “Solar Sister – Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda,” ENERGIA News, vol. 15, no. 1 (2014), p. 22, uploads/2015/02/en-2014-12.pdf, and from United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women), Sustainable Energy for All: The Gender Dimensions (New York: 2013), files/DocumentLibrary/GUIDANCENOTE_FINAL_WEB_Small. pdf; contact with family from J.S. Clancy et al., Gender Equity in Access to and Benefits from Modern Energy and Improved Energy Technologies, World Development Report Background Paper, BACK

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