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GSR 2015

237 07 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT ENDNOTES, FEATURE 1 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report, Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC (New York, NY and Geneva, Switzerland: 2014). 2 Partnership for Resilience and Environmental Preparedness (PREP), Value Chain Climate Resilience. A Guide to Managing Climate Impacts in Companies and Communities (San Francisco: Business for Social Responsibility, 2012), http://www.bsr.org/ reports/PREP-Value-Chain-Climate-Resilience_copy.pdf. 3 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), “Focus: Adaptation,” http://unfccc.int/focus/ adaptation/items/6999.php, viewed 22 January 2015. 4 Ibid. 5 UNFCCC, Assessing the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation Options: An Overview of Approaches (Bonn: 2011), http://unfccc.int/files/ adaptation/nairobi_work_programme/knowledge_resources_ and_publications/application/pdf/2011_nwp_costs_benefits_ adaptation.pdf. 6 C. Mitchell et al., “Policy Financing and Implementation,” in O. Edenhofer et al., eds., IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (Cambridge, UK and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2011); “World Energy Scenario” in Greenpeace International, European Renewable Energy Council, and Global Wind Energy Council, Energy [R]evolution (Amsterdam: 2012). 7 While there is an emerging realisation that there may be a strategic advantage in taking a precautionary approach to reducing vulnerabilities, many still view such measures as high-cost (with a low probability of return), and therefore as uneconomical. See International Energy Agency (IEA), Workshop Report: 5th Forum on the Climate Energy Security Nexus Policies and Practices to Enhance Energy Sector Resilience (Paris: 4 November 2014). 8 G.P. Harrison, Adaptation and Resilience in Energy Systems (ARIES) (Edinburgh, Scotland: University of Edinburgh, 2011). 9 World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), Building a Resilient Power Sector: Business Solutions for a Sustainable World (Geneva: 2014). 10 Asian Development Bank (ADB), Climate Risk and Adaptation in the Electric Power Sector (Manila: 2012). 11 Anthony Patt, Stefan Pfenninger, and Johan Lilliestam, Vulnerability of Solar Energy Infrastructure and Output to Extreme Events: Climate Change Implications (Vienna: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 22 April 2010); Eric Prideaux, “The Wind Farm That Withstood the Japanese Tsunami,” Wind Power Monthly, 24 March 2011, http://www. windpowermonthly.com/article/1061942/wind-farm-withstood- japanese-tsunami; ENERCON, “E126 State of the Art,” http:// www.enercon.de/en-en/66.htm, viewed 20 January 2015. 12 Peter C. Evans and Peter Fox-Penner, “Resilient and Sustainable Infrastructure for Urban Energy Systems,” Solutions, October 2014, pp. 48–54, http://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/ node/237206. 13 Katherine Tweed, “Massachusetts Awards $18M for Microgrids, Energy Resiliency,” Greentech Media, 9 January 2015, http:// www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/massachusetts-awards- 18m-for-microgrids-energy-resiliency; Laura E. Williamson, Helene Connor, and Mithra Moezzi, Climate Proofing Energy Systems (Paris: HELIO International, June 2009); ADB, op. cit. note 10; Royal Society, Resilience to Extreme Weather (London: January 2014); Carbon Disclosure Project, Insights into Climate Change Adaptation by UK Companies, report prepared for Defra (London: March 2012). 14 Atul Raturi, University of the South Pacific, Suva, personal communication with REN21, 11 December 2014. 15 Eric Wesoff, “Solar Stat of the Day: PV Systems Installed Ten Times Faster in Germany,” Greentech Media, 28 September 2012, http:// www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/Solar-Stat-of-the-Day- PV-Systems-Installed-Ten-Times-Faster-in-Germany; Raturi, op. cit. note 14. 16 President’s Council of Economic Advisers and U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Economic Benefits of Increasing Electric Grid Resilience to Weather Outages (Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President, 2013), http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/08/f2/Grid%20 Resiliency%20Report_FINAL.pdf. 17 David Yates et al., “Stormy Weather: Assessing Climate Change Hazards to Electric Power Infrastructure: A Sandy Case Study,” Power and Energy Magazine (IEEE), vol. 12, no. 5 (2014), pp. 66–75; Brent Rose, “This Solar Truck Is Bringing Emergency Energy to Rockaway,” Gizmodo, 5 November 2012, http://gizmodo.com/5957963/this-solar-truck-is- bringing-emergency-energy-to-rockaway; David J. Unger, “Are Renewables Stormproof? Hurricane Sandy Tests Solar, Wind,” Christian Science Monitor, 19 November 2012, http:// www.csmonitor.com/Environment/Energy-Voices/2012/1119/ Are-renewables-stormproof-Hurricane-Sandy-tests-solar-wind. 18 Energy systems are considered to be distributed if 1) the systems of production are relatively small and dispersed (such as small-scale solar PV on rooftops), rather than relatively large and centralised; and/or 2) generation and distribution occur independently from a centralised network, per REN21, Renewables 2014 Global Status Report (Paris: 2014). While various fossil fuel systems also can be distributed, most renewable systems do not face the challenge of ensuring transport and delivery of fuel. 19 David Fullbrook, REMOGRID Renewable Energy Mesogrid Accelerator, draft paper (Singapore: June 2014); Jan Burk, Germanwatch, Bonn, personal communication with REN21, 10 December 2014; Silvia Kreibiehl, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Frankfurt School, Frankfurt, Germany, personal communication with REN21, 10 December 2014; Sven Teske, Greenpeace, Hamburg, Germany, personal communication with REN21, 8 December 2014. 20 Teske, op. cit. note 19. 21 Evans and Fox-Penner, op. cit. note 12. 22 Williamson, Connor, and Moezzi, op. cit. note 13. 23 “Severe Drought Hastens Hydropower’s Slow Decline,” Forbes, 4 November 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/ pikeresearch/2014/11/04/severe-drought-hastens-hydropowers- slow-decline/. For a general discussion of climate impacts on hydropower, see A. Kumar et al., “Hydropower,” in Edenhofer et al., op. cit. note 6, http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/report/IPCC_SRREN_ Ch05.pdf. 24 Examples include Kenya (see REN21, op. cit. note 18) and the Andean Community (see Secretaría General Comunidad Andina, “El cambio climático no tiene fronteras. Impacto del cambio climático en la Comunidad Andina,” http://www. comunidadandina.org/public/libro_84.htm). 25 Aida Khalil, “Ghana: Assessing the Sustainability of New Hydropower Sites,” International Hydropower Association, 2 February 2015, http://www.hydropower.org/blog/ghana- assessing-the-sustainability-of-new-hydropower-sites#sthash. FZ5eN7OA.dpuf; M. Boko et al., “Africa,” in M.L. Parry et al., eds., Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 433–67; Lorn Ahlijam, “Energised Thinking: Ghana’s Renewable Energy Regime,” King & Wood Mallesons, 21 November 2013, http://www.kwm.com/en/uk/knowledge/insights/ energised-thinking-ghanas-renewable-energy-regime-20131121. 26 Ahlijam, op. cit. note 25. 27 Ibid.; Kofi Adu Domfeh, “The Future Concern Is No Longer About Energy Security But Climate Change,” Modern Ghana, 19 February 2015, http://www.modernghana.com/news/608043/1/ future-concern-no-longer-about-energy-security-but.html. 28 Ugan Manandhar, WWF, Nepal, personal communication with REN21, 2 February 2015. 29 Lily Riahi et al., District Energy in Cities. Unlocking the Potential for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (Paris: UNEP, 2015), http://unep.org/energy/portals/50177/Documents/ DistrictEnergyReportBook.pdf. 30 Justin Gerdes, “Copenhagen’s Seawater Cooling Delivers Energy and Carbon Savings,” Forbes, 24 October 2012, http:// www.forbes.com/sites/justingerdes/2012/10/24/copenhagens- seawater-cooling-delivers-energy-and-carbon-savings/. 31 David Fullbrook, DNV GL Energy, “A New Paradigm for Power,” presented at Norwegian Energy Solutions for Asia event, Singapore, October 2014, http://www.innovasjonnorge.no/ PageFiles/996175/DNV%20GL%20Fullbrook%20power%20 paradigm%20shift%202014-A1.pdf; Commonwealth of Australia, Critical Infrastructure Resilience Strategy (Canberra, Australia: 2010), http://www.tisn.gov.au/Documents/ ustralian+Government+s+Critical+Infrastructure+Resilience ENDNOTES 07 FEATURE BACK

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