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GSR 2015

104 05 DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR ENERGY ACCESS Source: See Endnote 10 for this section. Figure 35. World Electricity Access and Lack of Access by Region, 2012 Figure 36. World Clean Cooking Access and Lack of Access by Region, 2012 Figure ??. World Heat Pump Market, 2013 With access 85% With Access 58% Without Access 42% South Asia 38% East Asia 21% Sub-Saharan Africa 26% Others 16% Without access 15% Sub-Saharan Africa 55% South Asia 34% Others 12% Rural 87% Urban 13% Rural 83% Urban 17% Figure ??. World Heat Pump Market, 2013 With access 85% With Access 58% Without Access 42% South Asia 38% East Asia 21% Sub-Saharan Africa 26% Others 16% Without access 15% Sub-Saharan Africa 55% South Asia 34% Others 12% Rural 87% Urban 13% Rural 83% Urban 17% in mountainous and rural areas of North Africa and the Levant, and large segments of the rural population continue to rely on traditional uses of biomass.17 People concentrated in South Asia (in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) consume less energy per capita than the average continental African.18 India is home to large numbers of people who depend on solid fuels for cooking (778 million) and lack an electricity connection (263 million).19 China’s electrification rate is close to universal, but an estimated 607 million people in the country still rely on solid fuels for cooking.20 It is also difficult and costly to supply modern energy services to people living in small-island developing states in Oceania, such as Fiji and Vanuatu. These countries remain heavily dependent on diesel imports and have small electricity grids and high tariffs.21 Across Latin America and the Caribbean, overall rates of electrification are high, although they range from the worst in the Western Hemisphere (Haiti at less than 30%) to near-universal coverage (Brazil has achieved more than 99%).22 The situation is different when it comes to clean cooking, however. It is estimated that more than 50% of people in Central America use firewood for cooking, but only about 10% of firewood users have improved cookstoves.23 In rural areas of the Amazonian basin—in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru—people still rely heavily on firewood for cooking and heating.24

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