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GSR 2015

216 ENDNOTES 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS – WIND POWER MW new capacity for total of 5,928 MW, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 37; and Brazil added 2,495.5 MW for a total of 5,961.6 MW, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. 48 Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 3 September 2014. However, as of April 2015, the auction process for grid access had not yet begun, from Sawyer, op. cit. note 15. 49 Camila Ramos, Clean Energy Latin America (CELA), personal communication with REN21, 3 April 2015. 50 At year’s end, Brazil’s cumulative wind capacity was 5,939 MW, of which 5,005 MW was fully operational and grid-connected, and a further 600 MW was grid-connected under “test operation phase”, with 334 MW waiting to be connected, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 32. Note that Associação Brasileira de Energia Eólica (ABEEólica) deems capacity to be installed and grid-connected once it has achieved the status “Able to Operate”, meaning that the wind farm operator receives monthly payment for power sales, according to the accounting system of the Chamber of Electric Energy Commercialisation (CCEE), which considers the energy to be delivered under the contract at the contracted price. This status was created due to delays in completion of some transmission lines. 51 Australia added 567 MW for a total of 3,806 MW, from GWEC, “Global Wind Statistics 2014,” op. cit. note 23; and added 757 MW for a total of 3,806 MW, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. 52 Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 117. 53 More than 40 wind projects have been on hold since the national government said it would cut support for wind power, and investors and operators (including Australian-based companies like Pacific Hydro and Infigen, which has said it will focus on the U.S. market) have threatened to downscale or leave the country if these changes are made, from Byron Kaye, “RPT-Australian Wind Farms Face $13 bln Wipeout from Political Impasse,” Reuters, 8 February 2015, http://uk.reuters.com/article/2015/02/08/ australia-windfarms-idUKL4N0VH03820150208. 54 Aby Thomas, “Masdar Delivers Samoa’s First Wind Farm,” Construction Week Online, 31 August 2014, http://www. constructionweekonline.com/article-29798-masdar-delivers- samoas-first-wind-farm/. Samoa added 0.5 MW for a total of 0.5 MW, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. 55 Figure of 0.5 GW annually from GWEC, “Turkish Wind Bridging the Continents,” personal communication with REN21, 9 March 2015; Turkey added nearly 804 MW in 2014 for a total of 3,762 MW from Turkish Wind Energy Association, Turkish Wind Energy Statistics Report, January 2015, pp. 4-5, http://www.tureb.com.tr/en/ twea-announcements/434-turkish-wind-energy-statistics-report- january-2015. Note that Turkey added 0.8 GW in 2014 for a total of 3,511 MW at the end of 2014, per Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEIAS), information provided by Abdelghani El Gharras and Emanuela Menichetti, Observatoire Méditerranéen de l’Energie, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2015. 56 GWEC, “Global Wind Statistics 2014,” op. cit. note 23. Iran added 4 MW in 2014, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. xi. 57 GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 68, and Algeria from Maged Mahmoud, Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RCREEE), personal communication with REN21, 14 April 2015. Algeria added no capacity for a total of 10.1 MW; Egypt (66 MW; 610 MW); Morocco (300 MW; 787 MW); South Africa (468 MW; 570 MW), from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. Egypt added 60 MW out of a 200 MW project to be fully operational in 2015, and another two state-owned wind projects of a total 320 MW were contracted end- 2014, from Maged Mahmoud, RCREEE, personal communication with REN21, 12 April 2015. “Morocco Wind Farm, Africa’s Biggest, Starts Generating Power,” Phys.org, 24 April 2014, http://phys.org/ news/2014-04-morocco-farm-africa-biggest-power.html. South Africa added 473 MW for a total of 673 MW, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 37. Also, Tunisia added 11 MW, from idem., p. 32. 58 Morocco had 787 MW at the end of 2014, up from 487 MW, and Egypt had 610 MW, up from 550 MW, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 7; also from Mahmoud, op. cit. note 57; under construction from idem; Morocco leads Africa for total capacity, with 796 MW at end-2014, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 37; and with 787 MW, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 7. 59 Kenya’s Lake Turkana from Stefan Nicola, “Africa’s Largest Wind Farm Moves Forward,” Renewable Energy World, 16 December 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/ rea/news/article/2014/12/africas-largest-wind-farm-moves- forward; GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 26. Ghana, Senegal, and Tanzania from Sawyer, op. cit. note 18 and op. cit. note 11; and from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, pp. 27–28. Note also that Tunisia commissioned two wind farms (Metline and Kchabta) with a total capacity of 190 MW at the end of 2013, from African Energy, “Power Update: Tunisia on Hold Awaiting New Government,” 13 February 2014, http://www.africa-energy.com/ power-update-tunisia-on-hold-awaiting-new-government. 60 Figure of 1,683 MW added to the grid for a total of 8,540 MW, based on Europe data from EWEA, cited in GWEC, op. cit. note 1, pp. 52–55; on Japan (added no capacity for total of 50 MW), South Korea (0 MW; 5 MW), and the United States (0 MW; 0.02 MW), from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, pp. 52–55; and China from Shi, op. cit. note 19. 61 Europe added 1,483.3 MW to its grids for a total of 8,045.3 MW, from EWEA, The European Offshore Wind Industry—Key Trends and Statistics 2014 (Brussels: January 2015), p. 3, http://www.ewea. org/fileadmin/files/library/publications/statistics/EWEA-European- Offshore-Statistics-2014.pdf; and from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 52. Another 2.9 GW was under construction off European coasts at year’s end. 62 The United Kingdom added 813.4 MW to the grid for a total of 4,494.4 MW; Germany added 528.9 MW to the grid for a total of 1,048.9 MW; and Belgium added 141 MW to the grid for a total of 712 MW, all from EWEA, op. cit. note 61, pp. 5, 10. Three countries in Europe added capacity to the grid in 2014: Belgium (141 MW for total of 713 MW), Germany (165 MW for total of 722 MW), and the U.K. (644 MW for total of 4,323 MW), for a European total of 1,181 MW installed and connected to the grid during the year and cumulative capacity of 8,179 MW, from Zhao et al., op. cit. note 1, p. 40. According to Zhao et al., their numbers are lower than EWEA’s because their statistics for a Siemens project include only capacity that was installed, connected, and delivered to clients by year’s end. Germany built 1,437.4 MW in 2014, and 529 MW started feeding the grid during the year; at year’s end, Germany had a total 2,352.3 MW of offshore capacity (including capacity that was not grid-connected), from Ender, op. cit. note 32, pp. 26–37. 63 Leveling off of development from Katharina Garus, “Offshore Wind Installations Stabilise in 2014,” offshorewindindustry. com, 30 January 2015, http://www.offshorewindindustry.com/ news/offshore-wind-installations-stabilise-2014; UK developers cancelled more than 9.5 GW of potential offshore projects from November to July 2014; challenging conditions made it too expensive to develop, from Alex Morales, “Centrica, Dong, Quit Plans for 4.2 GW of Offshore Wind,” Bloomberg, 31 July 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-07-31/centrica-dong-quit- plans-for-4-2-gw-of-offshore-wind.html; uncertainty surrounding the UK government’s electricity market reforms have undermined investment and several developers shelved major projects from Jessica Shankleman, “Germany to Overtake UK in Offshore Wind Race this Year,” BusinessGreen.com, 2 February 2015, http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/news/2393024/germany-to- overtake-uk-in-offshore-wind-race-this-year; companies in Europe have scrapped plans for more than 5.7 GW from November 2013 to July 2014, from Feifei Shen, “China Three Years Late on Installing Offshore Wind Farms,” Renewable Energy World, 17 July 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/07/ china-three-years-late-on-installing-offshore-wind-farms. 64 “The Second Wave is Rolling in,” Offshore Wind Industry, February 2015, p. 41, http://www.offshorewindindustry.com/sites/default/ files/owi_04_2014_teaser.pdf. At year’s end, 1,049.2 MW offshore feeding grid, with another 1,302.1 MW installed and awaiting grid connection, from Deutsche WindGuard GmbH, “Status of Offshore Wind Energy Development in Germany: Year 2014” (Varel, Germany: undated), http://www.windguard.de/_Resources/ Persistent/9d9c89b0202690467e45c34c5f19ce50b84a6f8a/ Factsheet-Status-Offshore-Wind-Energy-Development-Year-2014- eng.pdf, viewed 13 February 2015. Germany added 529 MW of offshore capacity to its grid in 2014 for a total of 1,049 MW, with another 1,218 MW completed and scheduled to come on line in 2015, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 50; and Germany added 1,437 MW of capacity in 2014, of which 529 MW was grid-connected, for a total of 2,352 MW installed offshore and 1,049 MW grid- connected at year’s end, from Ender, op. cit. note 32. 65 Denmark had 1,271 MW operating offshore at end-2014, from EWEA, op. cit. note 61, p. 10. Denmark’s 312 MW Borkum Riffgrund 1 offshore project in the North Sea exported its first power in early 2015, and the project is expected to be fully commissioned in first half of 2015, from “Riffgrund 1 Notches First Power,” reNEWS, 17 February 2015, http://renews.biz/84214/ riffgrund-1-notches-first-power/. 66 Shruti Shukla, Paul Reynolds, and Felicity Jones, Offshore Wind BACK

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