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GSR 2015

209 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT of 12.9 GWth (18.4 million m2 ), from BSW-Solar, “Statistische Zahlen der deutschen, Solarwärmebranche (Solarthermie),” March 2015, http://www.solarwirtschaft.de/index.php?id=15. Germany had a total of 13.1 GWth and more than 18 million m2 accounting for retirement of old plants, from Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi), Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland im Jahr 2014 (Berlin: February 2015), pp. 25, 26, http://www.erneuerbare-energien.de/EE/Redaktion/ DE/Downloads/entwicklung_der_erneuerbaren_energien_in_ deutschland_im_jahr_2014.pdf. 41 BSW-Solar, op. cit. note 40. 42 The United States added just over 1 million m2 in 2013 (of which 771,400 m2 were unglazed) for a year-end total of nearly 24 million m2 (of which 21 million m2 were unglazed), from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1, and from Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. Note that U.S. data are uncertain because the U.S. Energy Information Administration no longer tracks solar thermal and the U.S. Solar Energy Industry Association (SEIA) has not finalised a planned survey, from Bärbel Epp, “USA: GoSolar at SEIA’s Birthday,” Solar Thermal World, 27 January 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/ content/usa-gosolar-seias-birthday. 43 About 58% based on an estimated 20.9 million m2 of unglazed water collectors in operation in the United States in 2013, and 35.7 million m2 worldwide, from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1, and from Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. 44 Based on data from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. 45 Ibid. 46 Australia added an estimated 585.7 MWth in 2014, retired 230 MWth, and ended 2014 with more than 5.97 GWth. All figures are estimates based on 2013 data (5,616.6 GWth total, of which 3,346 MWth was unglazed) and assuming market stability for 2014, from Sustainability Victoria market survey (unpublished), provided by David Ferrari, Sustainability Victoria, and forwarded by Ken Guthrie, IEA-SHC, Sustainable Energy Transformation Pty Ltd, personal communication with REN21, 1 March 2015. 47 Data from Clean Energy Council of Australia, provided by A. Webb, Clean Energy Council of Australia, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2015. 48 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 12. Egypt and Morocco from Emanuela Menichetti, Observatoire Méditerranéen de l'Energie (OME), personal communication with REN21, April 2015. Egypt has a small market but has seen a rapid increase, particularly in the hotel sector, as solar thermal is a readily available option for reducing costly diesel consumption, from Bärbel Epp, “Egypt: Green Star Hotels ‘Download’ the Sun,” Solar Thermal World, 9 January 2013, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/egypt-green- star-hotels-download-sun; in response to rising energy prices in Egypt, solar energy is becoming increasingly attractive for many applications, from Bärbel Epp, “Egypt: Aiming at High-Quality Supply Chain,” Solar Thermal World, 29 September 2014, http:// solarthermalworld.org/content/egypt-aiming-high-quality-supply- chain. Kenya has mandated solar thermal in large buildings, which is helping to drive the market there, from IEA-ETSAP and IRENA, op. cit. note 5, p. 18. In Tunisia, thanks to a support scheme introduced in 2009, capacity reached 14,000 m2 by the end of 2012, mostly in hotels, public baths, and hospitals, and 30 hotels had installed systems by late 2013, from Bärbel Epp, “Tunisia Funds Solar Process Heat,” Solar Thermal World, 7 October 2013, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/tunisia- funds-solar-process-heat; however, Tunisia’s market saw an estimated significant decline in 2014 to 53,000 m2 (below level of 2007) due to a delay in grant dispersal, and saturation of the market in well-off parts of society. The country’s market peaked in 2009 after rapid growth from 2005, due to a government grant programme, from Tunisia National Agency for Energy Conservation (ANME), cited in Bärbel Epp, “Tunisia: Ups and Downs of Prosol Subsidy Scheme,” Solar Thermal World, 15 December 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/tunisia-ups-and-downs- prosol-subsidy-scheme. South Africa has seen success driven greatly by rising electricity prices, fear of electricity shortages, and a national rebate programme from utility Eskom, per Frank Stier, “South Africa: High Demand from Tourism Sector,” Solar Thermal World, 1 July 2013, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/ south-africa-high-demand-tourism-sector. 49 Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. 50 Anton Schwarzlmüller, Domestic Solar Heating, Zimbabwe, cited in “Zimbabwe: Installing 100 Locally Produced Storage Tanks in 2013 Would Be a Big Success,” Solar Thermal World, 1 May 2013, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/ zimbabwe-installing-100-locally-produced-storage-tanks-2013- would-be-big-success; Frank Stier, “South Africa: High Demand from Tourism Sector,” Solar Thermal World, 1 July 2013, http:// solarthermalworld.org/content/south-africa-high-demand- tourism-sector; Yaping Zhang, “Thailand: Prefabricated Container Solution Improves Quality in Tannery,” Solar Thermal World, 9 April 2013, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/thailand- prefabricated-container-solution-improves-quality-tannery; Alejandro Diego Rosell, “Uruguay: Growing at Its Own Pace,” Solar Thermal World, 15 July 2013, http://solarthermalworld. org/content/uruguay-growing-its-own-pace; Pedro Dias, ESTIF, personal communication with REN21, 27 April 2015. The issue of lack of quality assurance measures goes beyond standards, and ISO standards are available but their existence alone does not address the problem, from idem. 51 Menichetti, op. cit. note 48. Lebanon experienced market growth averaging over 17% during 2008–2012, from Wilson Rickerson et al., Solar Water Heating Techscope Market Readiness Assessment (Paris: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2014), prepared for UNEP, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, Global Solar Water Heating Initiative, p. 67, http:// www.al.undp.org/content/dam/india/docs/EnE/solar-water- heating-techscope-market-readiness-assessment.pdf. 52 Figure of 85% of Israeli households from OME, Solar Thermal in the Mediterranean Region: Market Assessment Report (Nanterre, France: September 2012), p. 37, http://www.b2match.eu/ system/stworkshop2013/files/Market_Assessment_Report_ II.pdf?1357834276; Palestinian Territories from Menichetti, op. cit. note 48. 53 Angelika Cerny, Millennium Energy Industries, Jordan, interviewed by Bärbel Epp, “Jordan: ‘The Solar Bylaw Is Not Going to Have a Strong Impact on the Market’,” Solar Thermal World, 6 January 2015, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/ jordan-solar-bylaw-not-going-have-strong-impact-market. 54 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. 55 Yiorgos Lakkotrypis, Cyprian Minister of Energy, Commerce, Industry and Tourism, cited in Frank Stier, “Cyprus: Solar Thermal Industry Off to New Frontiers,” Solar Thermal World, 14 June 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/ cyprus-solar-thermal-industry-new-frontiers. 56 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. 57 Ibid. 58 European Commission, op. cit. note 33. 59 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1. 60 European Commission, op. cit. note 33. 61 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1; Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. 62 Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 12. As of 2014, approximately two out of five systems in Germany were combi-systems, from Bundesindustrieverband Deutschland Haus-, Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (BDH) and Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft (BSW), “Solarkollektorabsatz 2013 rückläufig – Solar- und Heizungsbranche fordern: Wärmewende jetzt einläuten,” press release (Berlin and Cologne: 17 February 2014), http://www. solarwirtschaft.de/fileadmin/media/pdf/pm_kollektorabsatz2013. pdf. Larger share of the market based on fact that combi-systems average three times larger than systems for domestic hot water only, and thus account for the majority of total installed collector area in some countries, per Dias, op. cit. note 50. Poland also from Marcin Czekanski, “Poland: Market in Transition,” Solar Thermal World, 30 May 2013, http://solarthermalworld.org/content/poland- market-transition; France and Switzerland also have a growing share of combi-systems, from European Commission, European Technology Platform on Renewable Heating and Cooling, Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda for Renewable Heating & Cooling (Brussels: European Union, 2013), p. 14, http://www.rhc-platform. org/fileadmin/user_upload/members/Downloads/RHC_SRA_epo_ final_lowres.pdf; and markets are growing in Russia, particularly in areas with cold climates, per interviews with manufacturers in Russia, New Polus, Inten, and Kassol, cited in Vladislava Adamenkova, “Russia: 2014 – Year of Change and Growth,” Solar Thermal World, 22 January 2014, http://solarthermalworld.org/ content/russia-2014-year-change-and-growth. 63 European Commission, op. cit. note 33. The trend towards hybrid systems including heat pumps is seen particularly in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, where policies and high electricity prices create favourable conditions, per “Solar + Heat Pump Systems,” Solar Update (IEA-SHC), January 2013, p. 14, http:// www.iea-shc.org/data/sites/1/publications/2013-01-SolarUpdate. pdf. BACK

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