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GSR 2015 - Bioenergy

39 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT 02 MARKET & INDUSTRY TRENDS BIOMASS ENERGY Biomass use for energy is multi-faceted: many different raw and/ or processed types of biomass can be transformed via numerous conversion technologies for use in energy sectors (residential, commercial, and industrial heating, electricity, or transport).1 (p See Figure 6.) Because of its multi-faceted nature and the complexities lying therein—paired with the widely dispersed sources and the difficulty of co-ordinating data collection across institutions— production and demand for biomass and bioenergy are relatively difficult to measure, and large data gaps often exist.2 (p See Sidebar 4.) ■■ BIOENERGY MARKETS Total primary energy demand from biomass in 2014 was approximately 16,250 TWh (58.5 EJ). The bioenergy share in total global primary energy consumption has remained steady since before the year 2000, at around 10%.3 In recent years, estimates for the share of traditional biomass in total bioenergy use have ranged from 54% to 60%.4 This large volume of traditional biomass—consisting of fuelwood, charcoal, agricultural residues, and animal dung—is burned in open fires, kilns, and ovens for cooking and heating applications.5 (p See Distributed Renewable Energy section.) After traditional biomass, modern heating accounts for the next-largest share of biomass use for energy purposes. Figure 6. Bioenergy Conversion Pathways Note: Solid lines represent commercial pathways, and dotted lines represent developing bioenergy routes. 1 Parts of each feedstock, e.g., crop residues, could also be used in other routes. 2 Each route also gives co-products. 3 Biomass upgrading includes any one of the densification processes (pelletisation, pyrolysis, torrefaction, etc.). 4 Anaerobic digestion processes release methane and CO2, and removal of CO2 provides essentially methane, the major component of natural gas; the upgraded gas is called biomethane. 5 Could be other thermal processing routes such as hydrothermal, liquefaction, etc. DME = dimethyl ether. Conversion Routes2 Direct (no conversion) Energy Carrier Energy Usage Oils oil crops (rape, sunflower, soya, etc.) waste oils, animal fats Lignocellulosic Biomass (wood, straw, energy crop, MSW, etc.) Biodegradable MSW sewage sludge, manure, wet wastes (farm and food wastes), macroalgae Photosythentic Microorganisms e.g., microalgae and bacteria Sugar and Starch Crops Figure 6. Bioenergy Conversion Pathways • Wood pellets and chips • Biomethane • DME, hydrogen • Biodiesel • Ethanol, butanols, hydrocarbons • Syndiesel, renewable diesel • Methanol, alcohols • Other fuels and fuel additives Solid Gaseous Liquid Fuels Transesterification or Hydrogenation (Hydrolysis) + Fermentation or Microbial Processing Upgrading3 Anaerobic Digestion (+ Biogas Upgrading) Other Biological / Chemical Routes Bio-Photochemical Routes Heat Electricity Fuel Source: See Endnote 1 for this section.

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