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GSR 2015

47 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT Figure ??. Global Biofuel Feedstock Prices, 2005–2014, with 2014 by Month 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 USD / million tonnes 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Coconut Oil Soybean Oil Palm Oil Sugar Maize 2014 2014 In the United States, the largest biodiesel production facility is owned by RBF Port Neches LLC.129 Diester Industrie of France was Europe’s largest biodiesel producer, with a capacity of 2.5 million tonnes (2.8 billion litres).130 Constraints in biofuel production in 2014 (especially biodiesel) included high production costs, unstable feedstock supplies (e.g., in China), logistical challenges (e.g., high costs of inter- island shipping in Indonesia), and policy uncertainty (e.g., in the United States, Brazil, and Europe).131 US biodiesel producers began idling production in the face of policy uncertainty, including a lapse of the US biodiesel tax incentive (roughly USD 0.26/litre) and delays in the announcement of renewable fuel standard volumes.132 Oil price declines and European import duties had a notable negative effect on Argentina’s biodiesel export contracts.133 In China, only 20–25% of biodiesel production capacity was utilised due to the shortage of feedstock supply, and in Australia, a number of biodiesel plants closed.134 In Europe, EU policy requires that every Member State obtain 10% of its transport fuel from renewable sources by 2020; however, new legislation discussed over the course of 2014 and likely to be implemented in 2015 would limit the contribution of biofuels derived from sugars, starch, and oil crops due to sustainabilityconcerns,whicharemainlyaboutindirectland-use change. This, in combination with amendments to some national biofuel policies, has raised uncertainty among producers.135 Even as several conventional biofuel production facilities closed their doors, several advanced biofuel production facilities came on line in 2014. These included three new biorefineries using cellulosic plant material (predominantly corn stover) in the United States: POET-DSM, DuPont, and Abengoa.136 In Brazil, three commercial, second-generation biofuel projects started operation: GranBio commercial cellulosic ethanol plant, Raizen/ Iogens plant, and Solazyme-Bunge plant.137 The advanced biofuels industry also faced challenges, however. US-based Kior filed for bankruptcy and decommissioned its commercial-scale cellulosic biofuel plant in Mississippi.138 In Europe, development of advanced biofuels has lagged due to the lack of EU-wide policy support, although some Member States have started to enact national policies (e.g., Italy announced a mandate of 0.6% advanced biofuels by 2018).139 Aviation biofuels made strong strides forward in 2014. In Europe (Norway and Sweden), supplies of aviation biofuels at airports became more readily available, and new contracts were signed in the United States to begin supplies in the coming years.140 In addition, some of the first commercial biofuel-based flights were completed in Europe and Brazil.141 In the United States, Boeing completed the world’s first flight using “green diesel”, which is chemically distinct from the biodiesel used in ground transportation.142 In October 2014, a Chinese subsidiary of the state-owned Sinopec Corp. partnered with Boeing to launch a pilot project in Hangzhou, China that will turn used cooking oil into an estimated 1.8 billion litres per year of jet fuel.143 Figure 11. Global Biofuel Feedstock Prices, 2005–2014, with 2014 by Month Source: See Endnote 114 for this section. 200520062007200820092010201120122013

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