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GSR 2015

225 04 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT 26 The province approved 500 contracts totalling 123.5 MW of power capacity in July 2014. Solar accounted for 490 of the 500 approved projects under Ontario’s FIT allocation, followed by bio-energy (8), wind (1), and hydropower (1). See Ontario Power Authority, “Ontario Power Authority to Offer 500 FIT 3 and 63 Unconstructed Rooftop Solar Pilot Renewable Energy Contracts,” 30 July 2014, http://www.powerauthority.on.ca/news/ ontario-power-authority-offer-500-fit-3-and-63-unconstructed- rooftop-solar-pilot-renewable-ener. An extended round of 100 MW of projects—including 99 MW of solar PV—were awarded in December 2015 ahead of the January 1 merger of the Ontario Power Authority with the Independent Electricity System Operator, per Independent Electricity System Operator, “Confirmation of Applicant Participation in the Extended FIT 3 Procurement,” 26 September 2014, http://fit.powerauthority.on.ca/newsroom/ september-26-2014-applicant-participation-extendedFIT3. 27 European Commission, “Energy and Environmental State Aid Guidelines—Frequently Asked Questions,” 9 April 2014, http:// europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-14-276_en.htm. Sidebar 6 from the following sources: range of options from Luiz Maurer and Luiz Barroso, Electricity Auctions: An Overview of Efficient Practices (Washington, DC: World Bank, Energy Sector Management Assistance Program, 2011), https://openknowledge. worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/2346/638750PUB0Exto 00Box0361531B0PUBLIC0.pdf?sequence=1; India from Natalie Obiko Pearson, “Acme, First Solar Submit Lowest Bids in India Auction,” Bloomberg, 28 October 2014, http:// www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-10-28/acme-first-solar- submit-lowest-bids-in-india-auction.html; Russia from Eugene Gerden, “Russian Solar Auction Attracts Chinese Bidders,” PV Magazine, 6 June 2014, http://www.pv-magazine.com/ news/details/beitrag/russian-solar-auction-attracts-chinese- bidders_100015335/#axzz3PORwWiAC; South Africa from David Walwyn and Alan Brent, “Renewable Energy Gathers Steam in South Africa,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 41 (2015), pp. 390–401, http://www.researchgate. net/profile/David_Walwyn/publication/265854538_ Renewable_energy_gathers_steam_in_South_Africa/ links/543632ec0cf2dc341db2df69.pdf?ev=pub_ext_doc_ dl&origin=publication_detail&inViewer=true, and from Bloomberg New Energy Finance, “Auctions Spur Wind and Solar in Africa; China Looks Offshore,” ClimateSpectator, 17 December 2014, http://www.businessspectator.com.au/article/2014/12/17/ policy-politics/auctions-spur-wind-and-solar-africa-china-looks- offshore. South Africa’s competitive tendering programme, which has been in place since 2012, is known as the Renewable Energy IPP Procurement Programme (REI4P); Chile from Christian Roselund, “SunEdison Awarded 350 MW of Solar PV in Chilean Auction,” PV Magazine, 15 December 2014, http://m. pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/sunedison-awarded-350- mw-of-solar-pv-in-chilean-auction_100017503/. In December 2014, Chile awarded contracts to 18 renewable energy projects through auction, including 350 MW of capacity awarded to SunEdison for solar PV built from 2016 to 2017; activity in Latin America from Hugo Lucas, Rabia Ferroukhi, and Diala Hawila, Renewable Energy Auctions in Developing Countries (Abu Dhabi: IRENA, 2013), http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/ Publications/IRENA_Renewable_energy_auctions_in_ developing_countries.pdf, and from Christiana Sciaudone, “Argentine Tender Hailed, But Finance Questions Remain,” Recharge, 9 July 2010, http://www.rechargenews.com/magazine/ article1287184.ece; Uruguay from Yannick Glemarec, Wilson Rickerson, and Oliver Waissbein, Transforming On-grid Renewable Energy Markets (New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2012), http://web.undp.org/gef/document/UNDP_ FIT_Port_TransformingREMarkets_15oct2012.pdf; Panama from “Panama Receives 31 Bids in Solar Auction,” IPPJournal. com, 28 November 2014, http://ippjournal.com/2014/11/ panamareceives-31-bids-in-solar-auction/. Panama held its first solar auction in November 2014 and received 31 bids; Brazil from Christian Roslund, “890 MW of Solar PV Clears in Brazil’s Reserve Auction,” PV Magazine, 2 November 2014, http://www. pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/890-mw-of-solar-pv- clears-in-brazils-reserve-auction_100017022/#axzz3S7NTt1Fa; Dubai from Moritz Borgmann, “Dubai’s DEWA Procures the World’s Cheapest Solar Energy Ever: Riyadh, Start Your Photocopiers,” Renewable Energy World, 7 January 2015, http:// www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2015/01/ dubai-utility-dewa-procures-the-worlds-cheapest-solar-energy- ever; Panama contracts from Alex Spatuzza, “Panama Award 172MW of Solar PV Contracts in First Auction,” Recharge, 30 January 2015, http://www.rechargenews.com/solar/1390317/ panama-award-172mw-solar-pv-contracts-in-first-auction; low PV pricing from Roslund, op. cit. this note; risk of contract failure from Ryan Wiser et al., Building a “Margin of Safety” into Renewable Energy Procurements: A Review of Experience with Contract Failure (Sacramento, CA: California Energy Commission, 2006), http:// www.energy.ca.gov/2006publications/CEC-300-2006-004/ CEC-300-2006-004.PDF; debates over policy options from, for example, Frede Hvelplund, “Political Prices or Political Quantities? A Comparison of Renewable Energy Support Systems,” New Energy, May 2001, pp. 18–23, http://www.wind-works.org/ articles/EFLMinimumPriceSystembyFredeHvelplund_NE.pdf, and from Wilson Rickerson, Janet Sawin, and Robert Grace, “If the Shoe FITs: Using Feed-in Tariffs to Meet U.S. Renewable Electricity Targets,” The Electricity Journal, vol. 20 (2007), pp. 73–86, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S1040619007000346; hybrid policies from Toby Couture et al., The Next Generation of Renewable Electricity Policy: How Rapid Change Is Breaking Down Conventional Policy Categories (Golden, CO: Clean Energy Solutions Center and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2015), http://www.nrel.gov/ docs/fy15osti/63149.pdf. Renewable energy procurement in Uganda is supported by the GET FiT program, a public-private partnership between the government of Uganda, Deutsche Bank, KfW, the World Bank, and the governments of Norway, the UK, and Germany. Under GET FiT, feed-in tariffs for hydropower, biomass, and bagasse are augmented by additional payments supplied by international partners. For solar PV, Uganda provides a base payment amount, but the premium payment amount is determined through competitive bidding. See Silvia Kreibiehl and Mark Schwiete, “Case Study: GET FiT – From Research to Implementation,” PwC Trade & Finance, Summer 2014, pp. 30–34, http://www.getfit-uganda.org/app/download/14093332/ PwC_Trade-Finance-Sommer_2014.pdf; contract failure rates from Wiser et al., op. cit. this note. 28 “Danes, Poles Think Smaller on Wind,” reNEWS, 16 March 2015, http://renews.biz/85716/danes-poles-think-smaller-on-wind/. 29 Legifrance, “Arrêté du 17 juin 2014 fixant les conditions d’achat de l’électricité produite par les installations utilisant l’énergie mécanique du vent implantées à terre,” http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte. do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000029167875&categorieLien=id, viewed 25 November 2014. 30 Ilias Tsagas, “Swiss PV Grows but FIT Cuts Push Market Towards Self-Consumption,” PV Magazine, 24 November 2014, http://www. pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/swiss-pv-grows-but-fit- cuts-push-market-towards-self-consumption_100017270/#axz z3K6KgYVaD; GSE Group, “Tariffe incentivanti per gli anni 2014 e 2015,” 18 June 2014, http://www.gse.it/it/salastampa/news/ Pages/DM-6-luglio-2012-tariffe-incentivanti-anni-2014-2015. aspx; Edgar Meza, “Italian FiT Cuts Destabilizing PV Market, Hurting Europe, Says EPIA,” PV Magazine, 8 September 2014, http://www.pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/ italian-fit-cuts-destabilizing-pv-market--hurting-europe--says- epia_100016347/#axzz3NIQgKC7s; Crimean FIT rates were cut by the government of Ukraine following the region’s annexation by Russia, from Stephen Bierman, “Crimea Cuts Payments for Wind and Solar Plants,” Bloomberg Businessweek, 8 August 2014, http://www.businessweek.com/news/2014-08-08/crimea- cuts-payments-for-wind-and-solar-power-plants, and from Lucy Woods, “Ukraine to Abolish Crimea Solar Tariff,” PV Tech, 26 March 2014, http://www.pv-tech.org/news/ukraine_to_abolish_ crimea_solar_tariff; Greece from Vaselina Petrova, “Greece to Remove Solar Ban, Slash FiTs by up to 30% Retroactively,” SeeNews Renewables, 13 March 2014, http://renewables. seenews.com/news/greece-to-remove-solar-ban-slash-fits-by-up- to-30-retroactively-409384. 31 “New Feed-in Tariff Issued After Nine-Month Delay,” Times of Malta, 25 May 2014, http://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/ view/20140525/local/new-feed-in-tariff-issued-after-nine-month- delay.520488; Linas Jegelevicius, “Amended Russian Power Law Aims to Boost Renewable Energy Generation,” Renewable Energy World, 18 March 2015, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/ rea/news/article/2015/03/amended-russian-power-law-aims-to- boost-renewable-energy-generation. 32 Peter Bennet, “Ofgem Confirms 3.5% FiT Degressions in January 2015,” Solar Power Portal, 4 November 2014, http://www. solarpowerportal.co.uk/news/ofgem_confirms_3.5_degression_ for_50kw_fit_tariff_bands_in_january_2367. 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