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GSR 2015

31 01 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT also was significant market growth in Asia more broadly, with Thailand adding more solar PV (0.5 GW) than many European countries, and the Philippines and Pakistan each bringing on line significant amounts of wind power capacity.46 ◾◾ Within the European Union, renewables accounted for the majority (78%) of new generating capacity for the seventh yearrunning.Germanyincreaseditsshareofnon-hydropower renewable generation from 10.5% in 2010 to 24% by 2014, whereas Scotland supplied close to half of its electricity from renewables in 2014.47 ◾◾ North America experienced significant solar PV and wind market growth, although the vast technical potential for both resources remains largely untapped. In the United States, more renewable energy capacity was built than natural gas capacity, and non-hydropower resources out-produced hydropower for the first time.48 ◾◾ In Latin America and the Caribbean, Brazil continued to lead in terms of total new capacity additions. Brazil commissioned over 3 GW of hydropower and a record 2.5 GW of wind power capacity.49 Both Chile and Mexico achieved significant increases in wind and solar PV, and Uruguay added the most wind capacity per capita globally.50 ◾◾ Africa also saw a surge in new renewable energy installations. South Africa was among the top 10 solar PV markets for the first time (ranked 9th), ahead of India, and led the continent in new wind installations.51 Kenya installed more than half of the world’s new geothermal capacity, and Rwanda significantly increased its total generating capacity with the addition of new hydropower capacity (at least 30 MW) and an 8.5 MW solar PV plant.52 The rapid growth of renewable energy generation created both challenges and opportunities in 2014. In countries where energy consumption is expanding, both renewable energy and fossil fuel generation are developing in parallel to meet growing demand. In countries with slow or negative growth in electricity consumption (e.g., several OECD countries), renewable energy increasingly is displacing existing generation.53 In response to this competition, some utilities and electricity suppliers in Europe and North America are repositioning by acquiring significant renewable energy assets, decreasing fossil fuel investments, and acquiring other utilities that already have significant amounts of renewable energy in their generation portfolios.54 At the same time, policymakers in some jurisdictions are requiring utilities to update their business models and grid infrastructure to support increased shares of renewable energy.55 In addition, several countries and regions continued to strengthen their transmission systems in 2014, to increase capacity for higher penetrations of variable renewables, and to build transmission lines specifically to access strong renewable resources, for example in India and Africa.56 Countries around the world also are exploring other new and innovative approaches to accommodating rising shares of renewable energy.57 (p See Sidebar 2.) Globally, renewable electricity production in 2014 continued to be dominated by large (e.g., megawatt-scale) generators that are owned by utilities or large investors. Yet Australia, Europe, Japan, and North America also have seen significant growth in numbers of residential “prosumers”–electricity customers who produce their own power.58 France held national dialogues on how to best support (and manage) prosumers, and the European Union began exploring guidance for member nations on self-consumption regulations.59 In developed and developing countries, industrial prosumers also produced significant amounts of renewable generation from waste biomass associated with agriculture and forestry.60 Community and co-operative ownership of grid-connected renewables also expanded during 2014, particularly for solar PV. Feed-in tariffs supporting community-owned renewables continued to operate in jurisdictions such as Thailand and Nova Scotia.61 Also, the first community-owned ocean energy system Source: See Endnote 37 for this section. Figure 3. Estimated Renewable Energy Share of Global Electricity Production, End–2014 Based on renewable generating capacity in operation at year-end 2014. Fossil fuels and nuclear 77.2% Renewable electricity 22.8% Hydropower 16.6% Bio-power 1.8% Wind 3.1% Solar PV 0.9% Geothermal, CSP, and ocean 0.4% Figure 3. Estimated Renewable Energy Share of Global Electricity Production, End-2014

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