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GSR 2015

68 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS because of the upturn in construction and new incentives at the municipal and regional levels.43 In 2014, Europe saw its sixth consecutive year of market decline.44 The reasons were as varied as the countries and included a lack of stable and effective support schemes, a dearth of installers, a large number of rules and requirements, and competition with other “green” investment options.45 Germany was again the largest EU installer and saw its two-millionth system enter into operation; however, the market was down about 12% to its lowest level since 2007.46 About 0.6 GWth (900,000 m47 ) was added for a total of 12.9 GWth (18.4 million m48 ).49 Solar thermal systems in Germany generated 7.3 TWh of heat during 2014.50 While the United States placed fifth for 2013 additions (0.7 GWth), it continued to rank second for total collector area, with 16.7 GWth at the end of 2013 (14.6 GWth of which was unglazed collectors for pool heating).51 About 58% of all unglazed water collector area operates in the United States.52 Australia is home to much of the remaining unglazed collector area—more than 13% of the world total.53 In 2013, Australia ranked sixth for new installations of solar water collectors, just behind the United States.54 In 2014, the country added an estimated 0.6 GWth (78% unglazed) and retired about 0.2 GWth for a year-end total of nearly 6 GWth (60% unglazed).55 This amounted to about 50,000 new solar water heating systems, for an end-2014 total exceeding 900,000.56 Solar thermal systems are used to heat water in several African countries, including Egypt, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Tunisia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, the most mature market in sub-Saharan Africa.57 South Africa has experienced market growth approaching 18% annually in recent years.58 However, markets in many developing countries in Africa and elsewhere are challenged by a lack of quality assurance measures and skilled labour, leading to use of inferior products and poor installations, which have undermined solar thermal’s reputation.59 In the Middle East, Israel leads for total capacity, followed by the Palestinian Territories, Jordan, and Lebanon (with 255 MWth operating at end-2014).60 About 85% of Israeli households use solar water heaters, and the Palestinian Territories also have a high per capita ratio.61 In Jordan, almost 95% of international hotel chains along the Dead Sea coast use solar thermal technology; however, while overall demand rose in 2014, the market for small systems declined due to a greater interest among investors in the country’s new FIT for solar PV.62 Globally, Cyprus remained the world leader on a per capita basis considering all water collectors, with 423 kilowatts-thermal (kWth) per 1,000 inhabitants at the end of 2013.63 It is estimated that more than 93% of Cyprus’ households and 52% of its hotels have solar water heating systems.64 Cyprus was followed by Austria (385 kWth), Israel (374 kWth), Barbados (319 kWth), and Greece (271 kWth).65 Considering capacity added during 2013, the leading countries per capita for new installations were Israel (38 kWth), China (33 kWth), the Palestinian Territories (19 kWth), Turkey (17 kWth), and Austria (15 kWth).66 Most solar thermal systems are used for domestic water heating, and they typically meet 40–80% of demand.67 There is a trend towards larger domestic water heating systems for hotels, schools, multi-family homes, and other big complexes.68 The use of solar thermal water collectors for space heating is also gaining ground, particularly in Central Europe, where 100% solar-heated buildings have been demonstrated (although typically solar meets 15–30% of space heating demand).69 Such “combi- systems”, which provide water and space heating, account for about 4% of the global solar thermal heat market.70 They are most common in Europe (particularly in Austria, Germany, Italy, and Poland); in Austria and Germany, they represent about 40% of installed systems and a far larger share of the capacity market.71 Solar thermal can be combined with various backup heat sources, and hybrid systems with heat pumps are gaining popularity in Europe.72 In contrast to solar water collectors, solar air collectors absorb solar radiation and use it to heat building ventilation air (rather than a liquid) or to provide drying air for industrial applications.73 They can reduce by 20–50% the amount of conventional energy consumed for heating a building, or for agricultural or process drying.74 At the end of 2013, solar air collectors (both glazed and unglazed) represented less than 1% of global solar thermal capacity in operation, or just under 1.7 GWth.75 Japan is the largest market for glazed air collectors.76 The largest markets for unglazed air collectors are Australia and the United States, although production in North America has been flat in recent years due largely to discontinuation of incentives.77 The country with the most unglazed collectors installed is Switzerland, where they are used to dry hay, but there has been little market for new capacity in recent years.78 Whereas domestic hot water and space heating are provided by conventional flat plate and evacuated tube collectors, which typically supply heat at temperatures below 60 °C, advanced collectors can be used for solar-assisted district heating as well as for industrial and commercial applications with operating temperatures generally in the 60–120 °C range; they also can drive some cooling systems.79 Concentrating systems—inclu- ding parabolic trough, dish, and Fresnel collectors—provide heat at higher temperatures (typically 120–250 °C, and up to 400 °C) for industrial processes or to drive double- or triple- stage absorption chillers.80 An increasing number of district heating systems relies on solar thermal technology, often combined with other heat sources such as biomass, and increasingly with seasonal storage.81 Although the market for such systems remains relatively small, interest has increased in recent years. Most capacity is operating innorthernEurope,withrecentmovementtothesouth.82 Interest is rising in other regions as well, with large systems operating in Canada, China, and South Africa, for example.83 At the end of 2014, an estimated 227 solar thermal district heating plants (totalling 551 MWth) were operating in about 20

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