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GSR 2015

179 01 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT approximately 370 GW at the end of 2014. Solar water heaters based on 185.1 GWth capacity (not including air collectors) in operation at the end of 2009, 373.1 GWth at the end of 2013, and an estimated 406.4 GWth at the end of 2014, from Franz Mauthner and Werner Weiss, AEE-INTEC, Gleisdorf, Austria, personal communication with REN21, April and May 2015, and on Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 9. Ethanol and Biodiesel based on 72.9 billion litres of fuel ethanol and 17.8 billion litres of biodiesel produced in 2009, on 87.8 billion litres of fuel ethanol and 26.3 billion litres of biodiesel in 2013, and on 94.0 billion litres of fuel ethanol and 29.7 billion litres of biodiesel in 2014, all from F.O. Licht, “Fuel Ethanol: World Production, by Country (1000 cubic metres),” various years, and F.O. Licht, “Biodiesel: World Production, by Country (1000 T), various years, with permission from F.O. Licht / Licht Interactive Data. 12 SE4ALL, “Consultations Global Tracking Framework Report,” updated 4 February 2015, se4all-starts-public-consultations-new-global-tracking- framework; The United Nations Decade of Sustainable Energy for All launched in 2014. The objectives of SE4ALL include universal access to electricity and modern cooking solutions, doubling the rate of energy efficiency improvement, and doubling of the global share of renewable energy by 2030. In order to achieve these objectives, governments are collaborating on High Impact Opportunities (HIOs) such as clean energy mini-grids, sustainable bioenergy, sustainable energy for island economies, and the water-energy-food nexus. In 2014, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) also launched the REmap, which lays out pathways to achieve the SE4ALL renewable energy objective. See IRENA, REmap2030: A Renewable Energy Roadmap (Abu Dhabi: June 2014), 13 Countries have enacted renewable energy policy in response to drivers such as carbon emissions reductions, environmental conservation, energy access, rapidly rising energy demand, energy security, and economic development, among others; see IPCC, op. cit. note 9; China’s recent large-scale renewable energy commitments, for example, have been driven by its desire to reduce its reliance on coal and mitigate environmental pollution, per Feifei Shen, “China Targets 70 Gigawatts of Solar to Cut Coal Reliance,” Renewable Energy World, 16 May 2014, http:// china-targets-70-gigawatts-of-solar-power-to-cut-coal- reliance?cmpid=SolarNL-Saturday-May17-2014. 14 See Policy Landscape section. 15 Explored from Agence de l’Environnemement et de la Maîtrise de l’Energie (ADEME), Vers un mix électrique 100% renouvelable en 2050 (Paris: 16 April 2015), default/files/assets/documents/rapport100enr_comite. pdf; Sweden also began exploring a 100% renewable energy target in 2014, from Bernd Radowitz, “IN DEPTH: Swedes Turn Green,” Recharge News, 4 November 2014, http://www. green, and from IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Energy Scenario for Sweden 2050, Based on Renewable Technologies and Sources (Göteborg and Stockholm: September 2011), Energy Scenario for Sweden 2050_bakgrundsrapport IVL_sep 2011.pdf; Denmark has a 100% renewable energy target by 2050, from Klima-, Energi- OG bygningspolitik, Our Future Energy (Copenhagen: November 2011), p. 3, http://www.; as does Tuvalu, from World Future Council, How To Achieve 100% Renewable Energy (Hamburg, Germany: September 2014), p.36, http://worldfuturecouncil. org/fileadmin/user_upload/Climate_and_Energy/Cities/ Policy_Handbook_Online_Version.pdf; IRENA, A Path to Prosperity: Renewable Energy for Islands (Abu Dhabi: September 2014), p. 55, Publications/IRENA_Renewable_Energy_for_Islands_2014. pdf; Costa Rica has a carbon neutrality target by 2021, from GO 100% Renewable Energy (GO100%), “World Wide Projects,”, March 2015, cms/index.php?id=18&id=77&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=34&tx_ locator_pi1[startLat]=29.59166665&tx_locator_pi1[startLon]=- 96.9421388&cHash=e55e30edd7f0c2622008ddd282776d6f; Cabo Verde, Samoa, and Grenada have 100% renewable electricity targets in place, from SE4ALL, Grenada: Rapid Assessment and Gap Analysis (Vienna: September 2014), http://www.se4all. org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Grenada-Rapid-Assesment- SE4ALLCountry-Profile-Grenada-120831-4.pdf; from “Solar Array Sets Samoa on Path to 100% Renewable Generation,” Engerati, 5 September 2014, solar-array-sets-samoa-path-100-renewable-generation; and from World Future Council, op. cit. this note, p. 27, http:// Energy/Cities/Policy_Handbook_Online_Version.pdf; the Cook Islands and Tokelau also have 100% renewable energy targets, from “An Island (Tokelau) Powered 100% by Solar Energy,” Clean Technica, 6 October 2013, http://cleantechnica. com/2013/10/06/an-island-tokelau-powered-100-by-solar- energy; from Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), “Cook Islands: 100 % Renewable Energy by 2020,” 5 July 2011, cook-islands-100-renewable-energy-by-2020; and from “Pacific Micro-State Tokelau Going 100% Renewable,” Clean Technica, 13 December 2011, pacific-micro-state-tokelau-going-100-renewable/. 16 Hydropower, biomass, geothermal, and onshore wind are now broadly competitive with conventional generators. PV module prices have declined 75% since 2009, and the cost of electricity from utility-scale solar has dropped 50% since 2010, from IRENA, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2014 (Bonn: January 2015), IRENA_RE_Power_Costs_2014_report.pdf. 17 Heat and electricity from IEA Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD), Renewable Energies for Remote Areas and Islands (REMOTE) (Paris: April 2012), wp-content/uploads/2012/06/IEA-RETD-REMOTE.pdf; energy access from Benjamin Sovacool, Danish Center for Energy Technology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, personal communication with REN21, 20 May 2015; see also Distributed Renewable Energy in Developing Countries section. 18 IRENA, Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems: Status and Methodological Issues (Abu Dhabi: 2015), http://www. grid_Renewable_Systems_WP_2015.pdf; Giles Parkinson, “Solar Costs Will Fall Another 40% In 2 Years,” Clean Technica, 29 January 2015, solar-costs-will-fall-40-next-2-years-heres/. 19 Artificially low prices and encouraging wasteful consumption. IEA, World Energy Outlook, op. cit. note 9, p. 32, http://www. 20 In 2013, global subsidies for fossil fuels, more than half of which were to support oil products, amounted to over four times the value of subsidies to renewable energy, and more than four times the amount invested in energy efficiency improvements. IEA, “Energy Subsidies,” energysubsidies/, viewed 11 April 2015; IEA, World Energy Outlook 2014, op. cit. note 9, p. 26. By contrast, renewable energy received $121 billion in subsidies during 2013, from idem. 21 Laura Merrill et al., Fossil-Fuel Subsidies and Climate Change: Options for Policy-makers Within Their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers (Norden), 6 February 2015), gsi/sites/default/files/FFS_Climate.pdf. Countries such as India and Indonesia reformed their subsidies in response to declining oil prices, from “IMF Applauds India for Cutting Fuel Subsidy,” The Economic Times, 18 January 2015, http:// news/58200783_1_fossil-fuel-subsidies-oil-prices-energy- subsidies, and from “Indonesia Scraps Gasoline Subsidies,” Wall Street Journal, 31 December 2014, indonesia-scraps-gasoline-subsidies-1420004528. 22 SE4ALL, op. cit. note 12; Justin Doom, “Poor Nations Go for Solar, Wind at Twice the Pace of Rich Ones,” Renewable Energy World, 29 October 2014, http://www. poor-nations-go-for-solar-wind-at-twice-the-pace-of-rich-ones. 23 Sidebar 1 from the following sources: Unless otherwise noted, all data and information are sourced from Christopher Dent, Renewable Energy in East Asia: Towards a New Developmentalism (London: Routledge, 2014); pollution deaths from World Health Organization, Global Burden of Disease Report 2011 (Geneva: 2012); renewable power capacity from REN21, op. cit. note 11; wind energy share from GWEC, op. cit. note 11; for details on solar PV, geothermal, tidal, and solar water heating, see relevant technology texts in Market and Industry Trends section; biofuels from REN21, op. cit. this note; Chinese PV module production from EPIA, op. cit. note 11, and from M.L. Huo and D.W. Zhang, “Lessons from Photovoltaic Policies in China for Future Development,” Energy Policy, vol. 51 (2012), pp. 38–45; Chinese SWH production from REN21, op. cit. this note; Chinese wind BACK

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