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GSR 2015

224 ENDNOTES 04 POLICY LANDSCAPE POLICY LANDSCAPE 1 This section is intended to be only indicative of the overall landscape of policy activity and is not a definitive reference. Policies listed are generally those that have been enacted by legislative bodies. Some of the policies listed may not yet be implemented, or are awaiting detailed implementing regulations. It is obviously difficult to capture every policy, so some policies may be unintentionally omitted or incorrectly listed. Some policies also may be discontinued or very recently enacted. This report does not cover policies and activities related to technology transfer, capacity building, carbon finance, and Clean Development Mechanism projects, nor does it highlight broader framework and strategic policies—all of which are still important to renewable energy progress. For the most part, this report also does not cover policies that are still under discussion or formulation, except to highlight overall trends. Information on policies comes from a wide variety of sources, including the International Energy Agency (IEA) and International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) Global Renewable Energy Policies and Measures Database, the US Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE),, press reports, submissions from REN21 regional- and country-specific contributors, and a wide range of unpublished data. Much of the information presented here and further details on specific countries appear on the “Renewables Interactive Map” at It is unrealistic to be able to provide detailed references to all sources here. Table 3 and Figures 28 and 29 are based on idem and numerous sources cited throughout this section. 2 The new 2030 target is binding at the regional level but does not establish nationally binding goals; see European Commission, “EU Leaders Agree 2030 Climate and Energy Goals,” 24 October 2014, news_2014102401_en.htm. 3 IRENA, Pan-Arab Renewable Energy Strategy 2030 (Abu Dhabi: June 2014), Pan-Arab_Strategy_June+2014.pdf. 4 France’s target was established under the new energy transition law, per Ian Clover, “Long-awaited French Energy Bill Puts Renewables Center Stage,” PV Magazine, 1 August 2014, beitrag/long-awaited-french-energy-bill-puts-renewables- center-stage_100015919/?utm_medium=facebook&utm_ source=twitterfeed#axzz3MBA3Anud; Ukraine’s target was set under the new National Action Plan for renewable energy development, per Eugene Gerden, “Ukraine Sets Wind Energy Target,” Wind Power Monthly, 8 October 2014, ukraine-sets-wind-energy-target. 5 Japan Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Cabinet Decision on the New Strategic Energy Plan (Tokyo: 11 April 2014), http:// 6 Alma Vidaurre Arias, “Nicaragua alista ambiciosa plan energetico,” El Nueve Diario, 30 June 2014, nicaragua-alista-ambicioso-plan-energetico. 7 Finanzas Carbono, “Bolivia tiene la meta de incorporar 160 megavatios de energia removable para el 2025,” 1 March 2014, meta-de-incorporar-160-megavatios-de-energia-renovable- para-el-2025/; Diana Hristova, “Bolivia to Install 160 MW of Renewable Energy by 2025,” SeeNews Renewables, 31 January 2014, 160-mw-of-renewable-energy-by-2025-402342; Ministry of Trade & Industry, Singapore, Speech by Minister Iswaran during Committee of Supply Debate, March 2014. 8 Adithi Rajagopalan, “Algeria Plans to Install 13.5 GW of PV Capacity by 2030,” PV Tech, 26 February 2015, 13.5gw_of_pv_capacity_by_2030. 9 China State Council, China’s Air Pollution Action Prevention Plan 2014–2017 (Beijing: 2013); David Stanway and Charlie Zhu, “UPDATE 1 – China to Install 17.8 GW of Solar Power in 2015 – Regulator,” Reuters, 18 March 2015, energyOilNews/idAFL3N0WK2U620150318?sp=true. 10 The National Mission on Small Hydro established a target of 500 MW of small hydro capacity by 2017 and 4.5 GW from 2017 to 2020, per Gregory Poindexter, “India’s National Mission on Small Hydro, Rehabilitation and Development of Hydroelectric Projects up to 25 MW,” Hydro World, 10 February 2015, http:// mission-on-small-hydro-rehabilitation-and-development-of- hydroelectric-projects-up-to-25-mw.html; Lucy Woods, “India to Boost National Solar Target to 100 GW by 2022 – Reports,” PV Tech, 17 November 2014, india_to_boost_national_target_to_100gw_by_2022; Natalie Obiko, “India Renewables Boom Aided by International Funds,” Renewable Energy World, 16 February 2015, http:// india-renewables-boom-aided-by-international-funds. 11 “St. Lucia to Intensify Renewable Energy Development Efforts,” Think Geoenergy, 17 February 2014, archives/17992. 12 “Turkey to Add 61 GW by 2023,” reNEWS, 17 February 2015, 13 Anthony Dipaola, “Dubai Triples Solar Energy Targets by 2030 on Lower Costs,” Bloomberg, 21 January 2015, dubai-triples-solar-energy-target-by-2030-on-lower-costs. 14 Anthony Dipaola, “Saudi Arabia Delays $109 Billion Solar Program Eight Years,” Renewable Energy World, 21 January 2015, http:// saudi-arabia-delays-109-billion-solar-program-eight-years. 15 REN21, Renewables 2005 Global Status Report (Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, 2005). 16 Abdel Razek Al-Shuwekhi, “Electricity Ministry Sets New Energy Feed-in Tariffs,” Daily News Egypt, 20 September 2014, electricity-ministry-sets-new-energy-feed-tariffs/. 17 Blanca Diaz Lopez, “Algeria Launches Feed-in Tariff,” PV Magazine, 29 April 2014, details/beitrag/algeria-launches-feed-in-tariff_100014932/. 18 The Gambia from REN21, ECOWAS Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status Report (Paris and Praia, Cabo Verde: 2014); World Bulletin, “Zimbabwe to Develop Renewable Energy Policy,” 3 October 2014, zimbabwe-to-develop-renewable-energy-policy. 19 Harry Huo, “China Solar Power Firms to Gain Boost from New Policy,” China Coal Resource, 21 August 2014, http://en.sxcoal. com/613/107120/DataShow.html; onshore wind from Jessie Jia, “China Plans to Cut On-grid Wind Power Tariff, Report,” China Coal Resource, 17 September 2014, aspx?cateID=613&id=108125&keyword=wind; offshore wind from “China Sets Tariffs for Offshore Wind Power Generators,” Reuters, 19 June 2014, power-windpower-idUSL4N0P01YA20140619; Manfred Otto and Giles Cooper, “Vietnam: Ground-Breaking Feed-in Tariff for Waste- to-Energy Projects in Vietnam,” Mondaq, 20 June 2014, +FeedIn+Tariff+For+WasteToEnergy+Projects+In+Vietnam. 20 Onshore wind from Jia, op. cit. note 19; offshore wind from “China Sets Tariffs for Offshore Wind Power Generators,” op. cit. note 19; Alena Mae S. Flores, “FIT Rate Payment Schemes Okayed,” Manila Standard Today, 30 November 2014, http://manilastandardtoday. com/2014/11/30/fit-rate-payment-schemes-okayed/. 21 “METI to Overhaul Rules on Feed-in Tariff Program,” Japan Times, 3 November 2014, business/meti-to-overhaul-rules-on-feed-in-tariff-program/#. VKF6k14AKB; Chisaki Watanabe, “Japan Approves 16% Solar-Tariff Cut on Falling Costs from July,” Bloomberg, 19 March 2015, japan-approves-16-solar-tariff-cut-on-falling-costs-from-july. 22 Wei-nee Che, Sustainable Energy Development Authority Malaysia, personal communication with REN21, April 2015. 23 Natalie Obiko Pearson, “India Considers Change in Solar Pricing Model,” Live Mint, 7 August 2014, Politics/lXzGQMT3ilOBUs1kM5Jg6N/Narendra-Modis-solar- boom-closer-as-German-model-mulled.html. 24 DSIRE USA Database, “US Virgin Islands – Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff,” 25 June 2014, incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=VI07F&re=0&ee=0. 25 Blanca Diaz Lopez, “Costa Rica Defines PV Feed-in Tariff,” PV Magazine, 5 May 2014, archive/2014/may/beitrag/costa-rica-defines-pv-feed-in-tariff_100 014970/#axzz30rMyp65k, Figure 32 from REN21 Policy Database. BACK

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