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GSR 2015

77 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT TECHNOLOGY TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS CAPITAL COSTS USD / kW TYPICAL ENERGY C. LCOE – US cents / kWh HOT WATER / HEATING / COOLING Heat Pump: Ground-source (resi- dential and commercial) Plant size: 10–350 kWth Conversion efficiency: 280-500% 500–2,250 7–13 Heat Pump: Domestic water heaters Plant size: 1–2 kWth Conversion efficiency: 250–300% 300–350 6–7 Heat Pump: Water-source (residential, including multi-family) Plant size: 4–40 kWth Conversion efficiency: 300–400% 500–700 5–7 Heat Pump: Air-source Plant size: 1–2 kWth Conversion efficiency: 300–400% 350–400 5–7 Solar thermal: Domestic hot water systems Collector type: flat-plate, evacuated tube (thermosyphon and pumped systems Plant size: 2.1–4.2 kWth (single-family); 35 kWth (multi-family) Efficiency: 100% Single-family: 1,100–2,140 (OECD, new build); 1,300–2,200 (OECD, retrofit); 147–634 (China) Multi-family: 950–1,850 (OECD, new build); 1,140–2,050 (OECD, retrofit) Thermosyphon direct: 100–250 (China, India, Turkey); 630–650 (South Africa); 1,100 (Australia) Thermosyphon indirect: 2,300 (United States) Pumped direct: 1,700 (United States); 760–820 (South Africa) Pumped indirect: 2,300 (United States); 850-1,900 (Central Europe); 1,600-2,400 (Northern Europe) Integral collector storage: 450–800 (United States) Large-scale SWH: 350–1,040 (Europe) 1.5–28 (China) 5–8 (Australia) Solar thermal: Domestic heat and hot water systems (combi-systems) Collector type: same as water only Plant size: 7–10 kWth (single-fam.); 70–130 kWth (multi-family); 70–3,500 kWth (district heating); >3,500 kWth (district heat with seasonal storage) Efficiency: 100% Single-family: same as water only Multi-family: same as water only District heat (Europe): 460–780 (350–400 in Denmark); with storage: 470–1,060 Domestic hot water: 5–50 District heat: 4 and up (Denmark) Solar thermal: Industrial process heat Collector type: flat-plate, evacuated tube, parabolic trough, linear Fresnel Plant size: 100 kWth–20 MWth Temperature range: 50–400 °C 470–1,000 (without storage) 265–1,060 (Europe) 210–320 (India, Turkey, S. Africa, Mexico) Concentrated systems: 420–1,900 (parabolic dish, India) 640–2,120 (parabolic trough) 1,270–1,900 (linear Fresnel) Solar concentrated systems: 980–1,400 (China) 1,800 and up (Germany) 4–16 (Global) 2.6–8.5 (Europe) Concentrated systems: 6.4–9.6 Solar thermal: Cooling Capacity: 10–1,000 kW (absorption chillers) 5–430 kW (adsorption chillers) Efficiency: 50–75% (single-effect absorption/adsorption chiller) 120–140% (double-effect absorption chiller) 1,600–3,200 Not available Note: To the extent possible, costs provided are indicative economic costs, levelised, and exclusive of subsidies or policy incentives. Several components determine the levelised costs of energy/heat (LCOE/H), including: resource quality, equipment cost and performance, balance of system/project costs (including labour), operations and maintenance costs, fuel costs (biomass), the cost of capital, and productive lifetime of the project. The costs of renewables are site-specific, as many of these components can vary according to location. Costs for solar electricity vary greatly depending on the level of available solar resources. It is important to note that the rapid growth in installed capacity of some renewable technologies and their associated cost reductions mean that data can become outdated quickly. Costs of off-grid hybrid power systems that employ renewables depend largely on system size, location, and associated items such as diesel backup and battery storage. Source: See Endnote 143 in the Wind Power text for sources and assumptions. 500–2,2507–13 300–3506–7 500–7005–7 350–4005–7

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