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GSR 2015

198 ENDNOTES 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS – SOLAR PV added 7 MW to the grid in 2014 for a total of 4,672 MW at year’s end, after commissioning 105 MW in 2013, from Red Electric de España, cited in Veselina Petrova, “Spain to Add 8.5 GW of Renewables by 2020 – Report,” Renewables SeeNews, 9 February 2015, http://renewables.seenews.com/news/ spain-to-add-8-5-gw-of-renewables-by-2020-report-462314. 46 France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, from Masson, op. cit. note 42. Note that France’s high number was due largely to past commitments (projects committed prior to 2014). France added 927 MW for a total of 5,660 MW, the Netherlands added 400 MW for a total of 1,123 MW, from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2; Switzerland’s market expanded and about 250 MW was added, bringing total capacity to about 1 GW from Ilias Tsagas, “Swiss PV Grows But FIT Cuts Push Market Towards Self-Consumption,” PV Magazine, 24 November 2014, http://www.pv-magazine.com/ news/details/beitrag/swiss-pv-grows-but-fit-cuts-push-market- towards-self-consumption_100017270. 47 The United Kingdom added 2,402 MW for a total of 5,230 MW, from Orlandi, op. cit. note 25. UK capacity was up 2,448 MW to a total of 5,228 MW, per UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), “Energy Trends section 6: Renewables,” updated 14 May 2015, p. 50, https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/ energy-trends-section-6-renewables. 48 Number of households from UK DECC, cited in “DECC Statistics Reflect Healthy Demand for Residential Solar Installations in the UK,” Renewable Energy Focus, 23 January 2015, http://www. renewableenergyfocus.com/view/41217/decc-statistics-reflect- healthy-demand-for-residential-solar-installations-in-the-uk/. Only remaining market for ground-mounted from Nico Tyabji, BNEF, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2015. 49 BMWi, Marktanalyse Photovoltaik-Dachlagen and Entwicklung der Erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland im Jahr 2014, op. cit. note 44. Germany added 1.89 GW in 2014 (compared with 3.14 GW in 2014 and 7.27 GW in 2012) for a total of 38.23 GW, from German Federal Network Agency, cited in “Germany Added Only 1.89 GW of PV Capacity in 2014,” Photon, 3 February 2015, http://www. photon.info/photon_news_detail_en.photon?id=90933; Germany added 1.9 GW for a total of 38.2 GW from BSW-Solar, op. cit. note 44. 50 Tariff reduction from BMWi, Marktanalyse Photovoltaik-Dachlagen, op. cit. note 44; low FIT payments and surcharge (under the EEG) on self-consumption from Masson, op. cit. note 42. 51 BMWi, Marktanalyse Photovoltaik-Dachlagen, op. cit. note 44. 52 Germany’s solar PV systems delivered 32.8 TWh of electricity to the German national grid in 2014, an increase of 1.8 TWh (5.9%) relative to 2013, from Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Annual Report 2014 (Freiburg, Germany: 5 January 2015), https://www.energy-charts.de/index_de.htm; gross generation from solar PV in 2014 was 34.9 TWh, per AG Energiebilanzen e.V. (AGEB), “Bruttostromerzeugung in Deutschland ab 1990 nach Energieträgern,” data as of 27 February 2015, http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/. Most capacity based on data from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. 2, and from EPIA, op. cit. note 2. 53 Australia added about 910 MW for a total of 4,136 MW, from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2. Australia had a cumulative capacity of 4,040.65 MW of domestic-scale solar PV at the end of 2014, and more than 40 MW of large-scale solar PV; the largest plant at that time was the 20 MW Royalla project in the Australian Capital Territory, commissioned in 2014, from Clean Energy Council, Australia, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2015. 54 Figures of 14% and 24% from Australian Bureau of Statistics, cited in Sophie Vorrath, “One in 5 of All Australian Households Now Using Solar,” Reneweconomy.com.au, 4 December 2014, http://reneweconomy.com.au/2014/one-in-5-of-all- australian-households-now-using-solar-32056. Businesses from Clean Energy Council, cited in David Appleyard, “Call for Renewables Policy Continuation as Australian Businesses Turn to Solar,” Cogeneration & On-Site Power Production (COSPP), 12 September 2014, http://www.cospp.com/articles/2014/09/ call-for-renewables-policy-continuation-as-australian-businesses- turn-to-solar.html. 55 For example, a 100 MW plant planned for Victoria state was suspended, from Natalie Obiko Pearson, “Australia’s Renewable Industry Imperiled Pending Policy Review,” Renewable Energy World, 1 September 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld. com/rea/news/article/2014/09/australias-renewable-industry- imperiled-pending-policy-review. Projects under construction include Nyngan solar plant (102 MW at full capacity) and a 53 MW plant, both in New South Wales, from James Paton, “Southern Hemisphere’s Largest Solar Power Plant Set to Go Online,” Renewable Energy World, 12 March 2015, http:// www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2015/03/ southern-hemispheres-largest-solar-power-plant-set-to-go-online. 56 Fastest growing from Adam James, “5 Key Stats Reveal Latin America’s Breakthrough Year in Solar,” GreenTech Media, 15 December 2014, http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/ energia-solar. The region installed more capacity in its first three years than any other regional market has to date, from idem. Uneven across the region from Christian Roselund, “Land of the Sun: Solar PV in Latin America,” Solar Server, 18 March 2014, http://www.solarserver.com/solar-magazine/solar-report/solar- report/land-of-the-sun-solar-pv-in-latin-america.html, and from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2. 57 Chile added 395.3 MW for a total of 407.7 MW, from Orlandi, op. cit. note 25. Chile’s capacity exceeded 600 MW by March 2015, per Masson, op. cit. note 2. See also Conor Ryan, “GTM Report: Latin American PV Market Grew By 370% in 2014,” PV-Tech, 29 January 2015, http://www.pv-tech.org/news/ gtm_report_latin_american_pv_market_grew_by_370_in_2014. 58 Mike Munsell, “Chile Installs Record-Breaking 150MW of PV in Q1, 380MW Under Construction,” Greentech Media, 7 April 2014, http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/chile- installs-record-breaking-150-mw-of-pv-in-q1-380-mw-under- construction. Chile is home to two of the world’s largest merchant plants (the 50 MW Maria Elena project, and 70 MW Salvador Project), which rely on the merchant spot market for revenue and thus are cost-competitive without public incentives, from James, op. cit. note 56. 59 Mexico from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2. Mexico inaugurated the Aura Solar plant (39 MW), the largest in the region when connected in March 2014, from Martifer Solar, “Martifer Solar and Gauss Energía Inaugurate Aura Solar, Latin America’s Largest Connected PV Plant,” press release (Oliveira de Frades, Portugal: 26 March 2014), http://www.martifer.pt/en/news/martifer-solar-and-gauss- energia-inaugurate-aura-solar-latin-america-s-largest-connected- pv-plant/. Brazil from Masson, op. cit. note 2 ; 1 GW in Brazil based on total of 1,048 MW from Marcelo Teixeira, “Brazil Gives Go-ahead to 31 Solar Parks in Push for New Energy,” Reuters, 3 November 2014, http://planetark.org/wen/72415. 60 Challenges of access to interconnection, obtaining power purchase agreements (PPAs), securing financing from Camilo Patrignani, “Lessons in Solar Development for the Latin American Market,” Renewable Energy World, 4 July 2014, http://www. renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/07/lessons-in- solar-development-for-the-latin-american-market; barriers also from Roselund, op. cit. note 56; challenge of obtaining financing also from Masson, op. cit. note 2. 61 For example, many projects have been announced in Jordan, as well as Morocco and elsewhere in Africa, but they have not been realised due primarily to difficulties obtaining financing, from Masson, op. cit. note 2. 62 South Africa added about 800 MW for a total of 922 MW, from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2. 63 Kenya off-grid and large projects from Sherelle Jacobs, “Electrifying Kenya: How One African Country Is Approaching Renewable Energy Development,” Renewable Energy World, 8 October 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/ article/2014/10/electrifying-keyna-how-one-african-country-is- approaching-renewable-energy-development. A 1 MW project at Changoi Tea Farm in Kenya was considered East Africa’s largest project as of October 2014, from idem. Larger plants were under development by the end of 2014, and Rwanda all from Maina Waruru, “East African Countries Move to Adopt Renewable Energy Technologies,” Renewable Energy World, 17 December 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/12/ east-african-countries-move-to-adopt-renewable-energy- technologies. 64 The programme includes 300 MW for small rooftop systems and 2 GW for utility-scale projects. In November 2014, 82 applicants qualified for the utility-scale projects, from Egyptian Electricity Regulatory Agency, http://egyptera.org/ar/renewable_energy_ companies.aspx (in Arabic), information provided by Maged Mahmoud, Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RCREEE), personal communication with REN21, 12 April 2015. 65 Countries with solar PV targets include Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, the Palestinian Territories, Qatar, Syria, and Yemen. For more information, see Policy Landscape section and Reference Table R15. Also see, for example, Heba Hashem, “What’s in Store for the MENA’s PV Market?” PV Insider, 4 February 2014, http://news.pv-insider.com/photovoltaics/ what%E2%80%99s-store-mena%E2%80%99s-pv-market. 66 Israel added 250 MW for a total of 731 MW, from IEA-PVPS, BACK

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