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GSR 2015

212 ENDNOTES 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS – SOLAR THERMAL HEATING AND COOLING local conditions such as availability of other heat options and costs, from Stryi-Hipp, op. cit. note 37. 95 Interest growing from, for example, Vladislava Adamenkova, “Russia: 2014 – Year of Change and Growth,” Solar Thermal World, 22 January 2014, russia-2014-year-change-and-growth; OME, op. cit. note 52, pp. 40–41, 74–75; Bärbel Epp, “Tunisia Funds Solar Process Heat,” Solar Thermal World, 7 October 2013, http://solarthermalworld. org/content/tunisia-funds-solar-process-heat; Emily Hois, “US Ranchers Roundup the Power of the Sun,” Renewable Energy World, 16 July 2013, blog/post/2013/07/ranchers-roundup-the-power-of-the-sun; 1% from Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 12, p. 6. 96 European Commission, op. cit. note 33; see also IEA-ETSAP and IRENA, op. cit. note 90, p. 8. Note that the Hyatt Regency in Aruba uses solar thermal to provide its guests with pure drinking water, from S.O.L.I.D., “S.O.L.I.D. Installed a Large Solar Plant at the Hyatt Regency in Aruba,” press release (Graz, Austria: 2013), installed-a-large-solar-plant-at-the-hyatt-regency-in-aruba; and solar thermal is being used in Oman, where it is cheaper than natural gas for powering oil recovery projects, from Wael Mahdi, “Solar Beats Natural Gas to Unlock Middle East’s Heavy Oil, Says GlassPoint Solar,” Bloomberg, 20 January 2014, http://www. natural-gas-to-unlock-middle-easts-heavy-oil-says-glassdoor- solar; a pilot “tri-generation” project in Jordan, operational since 2011, uses a parabolic trough system for electricity generation, industrial steam generation, and water desalination and chilling, per Rayer Ltd., “State of the Art Tri-Generation Project,” http://, viewed 3 May 2014. 97 Epp and Banse, op. cit. note 68. 98 Ibid. 99 Ibid.; several manufacturers in Western Europe’s heating industry have gone through insolvency proceedings or stopped activities in the sector, from Bärbel Epp, “Worldwide: Largest Flat Plate Collector Manufacturers in 2013,” Solar Thermal World, 5 November 2014, worldwide-largest-flat-plate-collector-manufacturers-2013. In Spain, companies are surviving through export, which accounted for more than 50% of total collector production in 2013, per Pascual Polo, Spanish Solar Thermal Industry Association (ASIT), cited in Alejandro Diego Rosell, “Spain: ‘Most of These Companies Will Survive Thanks to Internationalisation’,” Solar Thermal World, 16 December 2013, http://solarthermalworld. org/content/spain-most-these-companies-will-survive-thanks- internationalisation. Manufacturers in Spain had 1.3 million m2 of production capacity but manufactured only 241,000 m2 in 2013, and more than 50% of total production was exported, from Alejandro Diego Rosell, “Spain: Market Rebounds After Years-Long Struggle,” Solar Thermal World, 16 July 2014, after-years-long-struggle. In Cyprus, the industry is focused increasingly on replacements of older systems and exports, per Andreas Ioannides, Johnsun Heaters in Nicosia, cited in Frank Stier, “Cyprus: Solar Thermal Industry Off to New Frontiers,” Solar Thermal World, 14 June 2014, content/cyprus-solar-thermal-industry-new-frontiers. 100 Epp and Banse, op. cit. note 68. 101 Epp, personal communication, op. cit. note 90; Epp and Banse, op. cit. note 68. 102 Epp, personal communication, op. cit. note 90; Bärbel Epp, “Turkey: Three Vacuum Tube Manufacturers Eying Export Market,” Solar Thermal World, 2 October 2014, http://www. manufacturers-eying-export-market. Companies include Lara Solar, Assolar, and Solarsan, from idem. The share of vacuum tube collectors in Turkey increased from 4% in 2007 to 44% in 2013, according to industry estimates, from Hakan Alas, Ezinç, interview by Bärbel Epp, “Turkey: Vacuum Tubes on the Rise,” Solar Thermal World, 23 April 2012, content/turkey-vacuum-tubes-rise; and from Kutay Ülke, Ezinç, 20 January 2015, email to Bärbel Epp and provided via personal communication with REN21, February 2015. 103 Ranking according to manufacturers’ information in market survey by solrico, September/October 2014, cited in Epp and Banse, op. cit. note 68; and Bärbel Epp, “Worldwide: Largest Flat Plate Collector Manufacturers in 2013,” Solar Thermal World, 5 November 2014, worldwide-largest-flat-plate-collector-manufacturers-2013. 104 Linuo Group is an original equipment manufacturer for evacuated tubes and has one customer, Linuo Paradigma (a daughter company in the same group); Himin and South East Corporation are brand companies for solar tubes and complete systems, all from Bärbel Epp, solrico, personal communication with REN21, 22 March 2015. 105 Epp and Banse, op. cit. note 68. 106 Juichen Wang, China Association of Rural Energy Industry, cited in Epp, op. cit. note 16. 107 Epp, op. cit. note 16. 108 Large players include Linuo Paradigma, Sangle, Sunrain, Jingpu Solar, from Sun’s Vision, cited in Goess, op. cit. note 18. 109 Hongzhi Cheng, Sun’s Vision, cited in Epp, op. cit. note 16. 110 For example: Sopogy (USA), which supplied solar thermal technology to produce solar stem and thermal heat for absorption chillers or industrial process heat (and power), closed operations and liquidated assets, from Eric Wesoff, “Sopogy Liquidates, Another Casualty in Solar Trough CSP Technology,” Greentech Media, 23 April 2014, read/Sopogy-Liquidates-Another-Casualty-in-Solar-Trough- CSP-Technology; Eva Augsten, “Hawaii/California: Sopogy Goes into Liquidation After More Than a Decade in Business,” Solar Thermal World, 7 July 2014, content/hawaiicalifornia-sopogy-goes-liquidation-after-more- decade-business. Isofoton was under liquidation procedures in late 2014, and its automated production line for flat plate collectors was purchased by Navasol in Malaga, southern Spain, per Alejandro Diego Rosell, “Spain: Andalusia Incentives Continue Until June 2015,” Solar Thermal World, 18 January 2015, http:// continue-until-june-2015. In 2014, a few smaller manufacturers stopped production of flat plate collectors and left the solar business, including GMP and Tecnosolar (Italy), ZAE Ergom and Solar Polska (both Poland), ZEN Renewables (Belgium), and Richworld Renewables (Portugal), per Epp and Banse, op. cit. note 68, pp. 26–41. 111 Bärbel Epp, “Germany: Asset Deal Finalised—Wagner Brand Lives On,” Solar Thermal World, 30 September 2014, http:// finalised-wagner-brand-lives; Bärbel Epp, “Germany: Insolvency of Long-Standing Collector Manufacturer,” Solar Thermal World, 5 May 2014, germany-insolvency-long-standing-collector-manufacturer. 112 Bärbel Epp, “Denmark: New Arcon-Sunmark Focuses on Large- Scale Turnkey Installations,” Solar Thermal World, 12 February 2015, arcon-sunmark-focuses-large-scale-turnkey-installations; Bärbel Epp, “Denmark: From Sunmark to Sunmark Solutions,” Solar Thermal World, 1 April 2014, denmark-sunmark-sunmark-solutions. 113 Dalenbäck, op. cit. note 73. 114 IEA-ETSAP and IRENA, op. cit. note 90, p. 1; Swiss Federal Office of Energy, cited in Eva Augsten, “Switzerland: Solar Thermal Systems Cost Almost Twice as Much as in Austria,” Solar Thermal World, 20 December 2014, content/switzerland-solar-thermal-systems-cost-almost-twice- much-austria. For example, a system for a single-family home in Switzerland costs about 30% more than one in southern Germany and averages double the cost of a similar system in Austria due to high labour costs in Switzerland as well as quality standards, more expensive storage tanks, and other factors. 115 Stryi-Hipp, op. cit. note 37. 116 IEA, op. cit. note 88, p. 222. 117 IEA-ETSAP and IRENA, op. cit. note 5, p. 10. 118 In China, obligations are driving some key manufacturers (e.g., Linuo Paradigma, Sangle, Himin, Sunrain) to develop new technologies for building integrated systems, from Goess, op. cit. note 18. 119 Liners and floating covers from Bärbel Epp, “Germany/Denmark: Geosynthetic Lining for Large-Scale Underground Heat Storage Tank,” Solar Thermal World, 27 October 2014, http:// lining-large-scale-underground-heat-storage-tank; proven with minimal risk from Søren Elisiussen, CEO at Arcon Solar, interviewed for Stephanie Banse, “Denmark: Dronninglund Inaugurates 26 MWth Solar District Heating Plant,” Solar Thermal World, 1 June 2014, dronninglund-inaugurates-26-mwth-solar-district-heating-plant. 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